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Veterinary A & P

Midterm Study

Ribosomes produce? proteins
How many mitochondria are in the average mammalian cell? It varies with the cell’s activity type. Highly active cells such as heart cells require more mitochondria.
This cell structure modifies, packages and distributes proteins destined for secretion or intracellular use. Golgi Apparatus
The process of building new protein using the information on the mRNA is called translation
The function(s) of the flagella and cilia include locomotion or moving material past the cell
Describe the process of mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Prophase Chromosomes form from chromatin. A pair of chromatids join at the centromere. Nuclear membrane starts to break down.
Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle of a spindle. The centromere attaches to the spindle.
Anaphase Daughter chromatids are drawn apart. (to opposite ends)
Telophase The spindles break down and each daughter cell develops a new nuclear envelope and nucleolus. Chromosomes return to chromatin and cytokinesis occurs (forming two daughter cells).
Interphase The default phase of cells. This is a time for the cell to duplicate DNA. (before and after mitosis)
What is the purpose of mitosis? Mitosis is responsible for duplicating (or cloning) cells.
What is the function of the nucleus of the cell? Stores the cell's hereditary material (DNA) and coordinates cellular activities: growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction.
Blood is an _____________ tissue. Connective (with a liquid matrix)
Cutaneous membrane is another word for ________. Skin
Smooth muscle occurs in muscles that can not be consciously controlled (peristalsis). True
Endocrine glands Produce hormones which are secreted into the bloodstream
The goal of Inflammation is to Limit further damage and remove harmful agents
Cardiac muscle contains Intercalated disks uniting cells
List the 5 steps of the inflammatory process and describe each. Vasoconstriction, then vasodilation, swelling, pain, or tenderness as fluids from plasma (antibodies, enzymes, proteins) flood the area, clot formation, neutrophils and other phagocytes seek and destroy, capillaries return to normal size.
List your favorite organ system and it's functions for maintaining homeostasis. Respiratory System: Take O2 out of air, excrete CO2 and nitrogen, excrete some drugs/toxins, vocalization, thermoregulation
The bones of the limbs make up the axial skeleton. False
Red bone marrow is the site of production for red and white blood cells. True
Ligaments prevent the bones of the stifle from coming out of alignment as the joint bends and straightens. True. Ligaments are bands of tough elastic tissue around your joints. They connect bone to bone, give your joints support, and limit their movement.
The anal sacs located in the rectum of certain species, produce substances that act as chemical markers or warnings for the animal. True
The process of skin cells dying and filling with keratin as they move toward the skin surface is called saponification. False. It is called keratinization.
Epidermis the surface epithelium of the skin, overlying the dermis
Dermis the thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis which forms the true skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures
Hypodermis a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles.
Arrector pili muscle Contraction of these muscles causes the hairs to stand on end, known colloquially as goose bumps
blood vessels are the components of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body
Hair follicle a part of the skin, which grows a hair by packing old cells together
Keratinocytes constitute 90% of the cells of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin.
Sweat gland a small gland that secretes sweat, situated in the dermis of the skin
Sebaceous gland a small gland in the skin which secretes a lubricating oily matter (sebum) into the hair follicles to lubricate the skin and hair
Sensory nerve a cable-like bundle of the afferent nerve fibers coming from sensory receptors in the peripheral nervous system
Compact bone consists of tightly compacted cylinders of bone called Haversian systems
The mandible is connected to the rest of the skull by this type of joint synovial
What produces synovial fluid? synovial membrane
What are the sarcomeres of the muscle cell made of? actin & myosin
Where would involuntary nonstriated (smooth) muscle be found in an animal's body? uterine wall
Name three common intramuscular injection sites in the dog. epaxial, hamstring and quadricep muscle groups
When a dog raises its paw to "shake" your hand, what is occurring at the elbow joint? (if the shoulder remains neutral) flexion
What structure connects muscles to bones? tendons
Which type of muscle is called involuntary striated muscle? cardiac
Muscle contraction requires this substance to be released from the sarcomere when the neuron fires on the muscle cell. calcium
Which two structures are part of the lower respiratory tract? alveoli and bronchioles
Which structures are found in the mediastinum? heart and esophagus
Surfactant is found in alveoli, its function is to Decrease surface tension, preventing alveoli from collapse
The trachea is lined with ciliated epithelium
Which structure generates the electrical signal that results in the repeated beating of the normal heart? sinoatrial node (SA node)
Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood that leaves the left heart. CO is effected by heart rate and stroke volume
Heart sounds are generated by closure of the heart valves
The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) shows electrical currents moving across the heart
The largest artery in the body is the aorta
The chordae tendonae connect the AV valves to the heart muscle wall
Internal respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between tissue capillaries and cells of the body
Which situation will trigger the Respiratory Center of the brain to increase rate of breathing? increased blood CO2
Describe the movement of blood through the heart. (Be specific!) (Your answer should have 6 parts) Deoxygenated blood enters the vena cava on its way to the right atrium. From the right atrium it moves into the right ventricle via the left atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve). Flows through the semilunar valve into the pulmonary artery. Lungs. P ..
Here is a canine EKG. Describe what is physically occurring during each part of the rhythm. P wave: atrial depolarization (SA node discharges) P-R: AV node (here is a pause to allow the atrium to fully empty) QRS wave: ventricular depolarization (current moves along bundle of HIS)(systole) T wave: ventricular repolarization(distole)
Point A In the lungs Capillaries are pulling oxygenated blood away from the alveoli to distribute to arteries and also releasing CO2 or carbon dioxide, collected by the veins, to the alveoli to be exhaled.
Point B In body tissues Capillary beds are distributing oxygenated blood to cells and collecting CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the deoxygenated blood.
Name one common venipuncture location in the dog or cat patient. Cephalic venipuncture (dorsal surface of left or right forelimbs.
Cardiovascular System Function is: Move nutrients and immune cells throughout tissue of body (particles and gasses), remove waste from tissues of the body (particles and gasses), and thermoregulation.
Musculoskeletal System Function is: Protect animal, provide locomotion, nutrient storage, produce blood cells
Respiratory System Function is: Take O2 out of air, excrete CO2 and nitrogen, excrete some drugs/toxins, vocalization, thermoregulation
Neurological System function: Assessment of environment (internal and external), interaction with environment (internal and external), and integration of complex movement.
Integumentary System function: Protection (UV rays, physical harm, some chemicals, disease/harmful microorganisms), thermoregulation, sensation.
Alimentary System Absorption of nutrients, excretion of wastes, and toxins.
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? production, modification, quality control and dispatch of some proteins.
Four major tissue types connective, epithelial, muscular, nervous
Epithelial tissue Covers the body surface and forms the lining for most internal cavities. Major functions: protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration. Protects the body from dirt, dust, bacteria and other microbes that may be harmful.
Connective tissue The most abundant and the most widely distributed of the tissues. Perform a variety of functions including support and protection. Types: ordinary loose connective tissue, fat tissue, dense fibrous tissue, cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph
Muscle tissue Skeletal, smooth, cardiac. Skeletal (voluntary) tissue is used in the contraction of skeletal parts. Smooth is found in the walls of internal organs and blood vessels (involuntary) The cardiac found only in the walls of the heart is (involuntary)
Nervous tissue Composed of specialized cells which not only receive stimuli but also conduct impulses to and from all parts of the body. Neurons are long and string-like
Four steps of healing Hemostasis, Inflammatory, Proliferative, Maturation
Upper respiratory nostrils, nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, and trachea
Lower respiratory Bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
Intramuscular injection sites epaxial, quatriceps, trapezius, triceps, hamstring group
Point to auscultate heart sounds RAT- Right AV tricuspid (behind the elbow on chest) LAM- Left AV mitral (bicuspid)
Lymph node palpation sites popliteal, axillary, inguinal, submandibular, prescapular
Created by: Raevyn1



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