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Vet. Terminology

Musculoskeletal & Integumentary System ?'s

QuestionAnswer
The _____________ vertebrae are those found in the neck. Cervical
A _____________ is a tough, flexible bundle of connective tissue that holds two bones together. ligament
The ______________ is also called the shaft of a long bone. diaphysis
________________ is the act of bending, causing the joint angle to decrease. Flexion
____________________ anatomically refers to the tail. Coccygeal
The joint between the front paw and radius is the ____________ joint. carpal
If a cat is lying on its chest, it is in a _________________position (recumbency). sternal
Diagram the word: intervertebral inter-vertebr-al
Diagram the word: melanocyte melan-o-cyte
Diagram the word: intradermal intra-derm-al
Diagram the word: circumoral circum-or-al
Scapula Shoulder bone, shoulder blade, wing bone or blade bone, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper forelimb bone).
Humerus The bone at the top of the forelimb.
Pelvis Composed of several large, flat bones that form by their attachment to the sacrum, a rectangular, boxlike structure that gives shape to the caudal axial skeleton and serves as the point of attachment of the pelvic limbs to the axial skeleton.
Tibia Similar to our shin bone
Subcutis "Beneath the skin" Adipose and connective tissue. Function: stores fat, and strength + elasticity of skin.
Epidermis "Upon the skin" Stratified squamous cells. No blood vessels, nerves, or glands. Functions: waterproof skin, protect from chemicals and organisms, and melanocyte pigment (melanin) protects body from UV light.
Identify the layers of the skin and inherent structures. Epidermis Stratum Corneum Dermis Sweat gland Hair shaft Sebaceous/lanolin gland Hair follicle Blood vessel Nerve Arrector pili muscle Subcutis Adipose
pruritus State of itchness
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin
erythematous Pertaining to redness
piloerection Goosebumps
fibroplasia Forming scar tissue
Dermis "skin" Fibroelastic framework. Nerves and blood vessels present. Function: thermoregulation (dilation of capillaries, sweat production, piloerection), and sense of touch.
Nails, Hooves, Horns, Beak Keratinized epidermis. Specialized for specific functions.
Hair, Fur, Wool, Feathers Hair follicles
Glands Sebum & lanolin: oils skin and fur, elasticity, waterproof, micro-organism balance. Pheromones: circumoral glands of cats, perianal glands of dogs. Sweat.
erythema Superficial reddening of the skin, usually in patches, as a result of injury or irritation causing dilatation of the blood capillaries
Stages of Wound Healing Inflammatory, Debridement, Repair, Late Repair, Maturation
Inflammation Bleeding (helps clean the wound), severed blood vessels constrict, platelets aggregate and activate forming a platelet plug, Activated clotting factors secure the final thrombus with fibrin. This prevents entry by organisms or debris.
Characteristics of Inflammation Pain, edema, erythema, heat, and loss of function of the body part.
Debridement Mediators provide chemotaxis in inflammatory stages. Macrophages remove damaged tissue or foreign objects from the wound. Neutrophils will respond first (making inflammation worse). Next come the monocytes. After which purulent exudate may be seen.
Monocytes Enter a wound, debride it, and secrete growth factors, which will attract fibroblasts for dermal repair.
Urticaria Hives
keloid raised scar
laminitis (founder) inflammation of laminae of the foot – the soft tissue structures that attach the coffin (pedal bone) of the foot to the hoof wall. The inflammation and damage causes extreme pain and leads to instability of the coffin bone in the hoof.
radius A long bone of the forelimb. The radius lies on the cranial aspect of the antebrachium. The proximal end of the radius articulates with the humerus to form, in part, the elbow joint.
ulna A long bone of the antebrachium, Lies on the caudal aspect of the antebrachium. The proximal end of the ulna articulates with the humerus to form, in part, the elbow joint. The olecranon forms the point of the elbow.
carpus A joint of the distal forelimb. It is composed of numerous small, short bones. The proximal border of the carpus articulates with the radius and the ulna.
Phalanx A small bone of the foot. Each digit is composed of three phalanges.
femur Long bone of the proximal hindlimb. Articulates with the pelvis to form the hip. It has a large bony protuberance called the greater trochanter. Distal end articulates with the tibia to form the stifle joint.
fibula A thin long bone of the crus. Lies lateral to the tibia. Falls just short of the stifle joint. Articulates with the tarsus distally.
Tarsus A joint of the distal hindlimb. It is composed of numerous small, short bones. The proximal border articulates with the tibia and fibula.
simple fracture Fracture that is contained within the skin and soft tissues
compound fracture Fracture that is open to the environment through a penetrating soft tissue wound.
Epiphysis to grow upon. Anatomically, refers to the end of the long bone, usually covered in cartilage. pl. epiphyses.
Metaphysis to grow beyond. Anatomically refers to the end of a long bone, usually covered with cartilage; pl. epiphyses.
Diaphysis to grow between. Anatomically refers to the shaft of a long bone.
Periosteum a dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints
Articular cartilage the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints
adduction the movement of a limb or other part toward the midline of the body or toward another part.
abduction the movement of a limb or other part away from the midline of the body, or from another part.
circumduction A conical movement of a body part (ball and socket joint) or the eye. A combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction.
tendons a flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
ligaments Ligaments are bands of tough elastic tissue around your joints. They connect bone to bone, give your joints support, and limit their movement.
Created by: Raevyn1