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Vet. Terminology

Body Structure and Organization

TermDefinition
Hematopoietic Pertaining to blood production
Lymphatic Pertaining to lymph [L. "water"]
Musculoskeletal Pertaining to the muscles and skeleton
Cardiovascular Pertaining to the heart and vessels
Respiratory Pertaining to again breathing
Neurological Pertaining to nerve study
Alimentary Pertaining to food
Urinary Pertaining to urine
Reproduction Pertaining to again producing [i.e. offspring]
Endocrine To secrete inside
Integumentary Pertaining to covering over
Visceral Pertaining to viscera [organs]
Cranium The head
Thoracic Pertaining to the thorax [chest]
Abdominal Pertaining to the abdomen
Epithelial Pertaining to epithelium
Endothelial Pertaining to endothelium
Cuboidal Pertaining to resembling a cube
Squamous Pertaining to scales
Columnar Pertaining to column [pillars]
Myocyte A muscle cell
Homeostasis standing unchanged. Clinically refers to that state of balance or equilibrium, albeit normal function within the body
Pathology The study of disease
Synergism The state of working together; syn-together erg - work
Symbiosis The state of living together; sym-together bio-life
Biology The study of life
Atomic Pertaining to the atom
Molecular Pertaining to a little mass [molecule]
Peritoneal Pertaining to peritoneum [L. per, around + teinein, to stretch] peritoneal tissue lines the abdominal cavity
Pleural Pertaining to pleura [Gr. "rib," "side"] pleural tissue lines the chest cavity
organic containing carbon
nonorganic containing no carbon
epithelial tissue Covers all body surfaces: all organs, forms the inner lining of body cavities and hollow organs. It is anchored to underlying connective tissue by thin basement membrane from which it receives nourishment from nutrients diffused from connective tissue.
simple epithelial tissue epithelial tissues composed of single layers
stratified epithelial tissue epithelial tissues arranged in layers
pseudostratified epithelial tissue epithelial tissue that appears to be arranged in layers but are not
squamous epithelial tissue epithelial tissue composed of thin flattened cells
cuboidal epithelial tissue composed of cube-like cells
stratified squamous epithelium many layers making it relatively thick. Cells near the surface are flattened. Deeper into the tissue layers (near basement membrane) cells are usually cuboidal shaped. Mitosis happen nearby. Excellent barrier against pathogenic organisms. (bladder lining)
simple squamous epithelium thin layer of flattened cells that are interlocked, much like tongue and groove or lap joints used in carpentry. Designed to permit diffusion of some substances. (walls of capillaries, and air sacs in lungs)
simple cuboidal epithelium Consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells frequently found in glands and lining the tubules of kidneys and the liver. Generally aid functions of absorption or secretion.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium Nuclei of the cells are located at various levels throughout the tissue. This epithelial tissue is commonly found lining the respiratory tract. Many are ciliated. The cilia help move mucus up and out of the airways.
Connective tissue Type of tissue that connects structures together, as well as provide support and protection. Cells are farther apart. Fiber or other such substances are between them. Many have an abundant blood supply.
Fibrous connective tissue Dense tissue composed of many tightly packed thick collagen fibers and fine elastic fibers. This tissue is crucial in holding bones together (ligaments), providing attachments of muscles to bones (tendons), and is found in deep layers of the skin (dermis)
Elastic connective tissue Primarily composed of elastic tissue fibers, but also some collagenous fibers. It provides elasticity to structures it forms. Found primarily in hollow internal organs and vessel walls. Elastin is also found in skin, giving it tremendous flexibility.
Loose connective tissue A more delicate type of connective tissue. It generally forms thin membranes throughout the body, like basement membranes that anchor epithelium to underlying tissues. Adipose tissue (fat)
Cartilage Somewhat rigid connective tissue. Doesn't have direct blood supply. Receives nutrients from surrounding connective tissues. Found in joints formed between bones. Protects the underlying bone by providing a smooth joint surface.
Bone Most dense/rigid type of connective tissue. Hardness results from presence of minerals and mineral salts in its matrix. Provides support for muscles, organs, and other body tissues. Protects viscera. (rib cage - thoracic viscera and skull -brain)
Muscle tissue Subdivided into three types: smooth, cardiac, skeletal. Has the capacity to contract and relax, changing the overall length from one moment to the next.
Smooth muscle tissue Associated with unconscious, involuntary activity. It is found predominantly in the walls of hollow organs (stomach, intestines, blood vessels, and urinary bladder. Lacks striations (stripes)
Cardiac muscle Under unconscious/involuntary control. Found only in the heart. Its cells are striated and uniquely joined together end to end. Has specialized intercellular junctions (intercalated discs) that give it extraordinary strength and contractile ability.
Skeletal muscle Composed of billions of myocytes (also called muscle fibers). Each myocyte has a long, thin, cylindrical shape with rounded ends and numerous nuclei along its length. The rounded ends of myocytes are attached to fibrous connective tissue.
Cranial vault Formed by the bones of the cranium, houses the brain
Thoracic cavity Contains visceral components such as the heart and lungs. Also referred to as the pleural cavity.
Abdominal viscera (peritoneal cavity) Includes liver, stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder. Separated from the Thoracic cavity (pleural cavity) by a large muscle called the diaphragm.
Hiatus A small region of the diaphragm that permits passage of major blood vessels and other such structures.
Hematopoietic system Made up of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Lymphatic system Composed of a network of vessels and glands that are largely responsible for immunity within the body. It is also responsible for the movement of interstitial (spaces between tissues) fluids back into general circulation.
Musculoskeletal system Formed of bones, muscles, and connective tissues. Provides overall structure and movement of the body.
Cardiovascular system Composed of the heart and blood vessels. Provides continual circulation of the blood.
Respiratory system Consisting of airways running from the nose to the lungs. Provides for the needed exchange of gases like O2 and CO2.
Neurological system Made up of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Controls many of the other organ systems with neuroelectrical input.
Alimentary system (Digestive) Provides for the intake of nutrients for the body and disposal of some wastes.
Urinary system Including the kidneys and urinary bladder, is also critical for the removal of toxic wastes fro the body, as well as the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.
Reproductive system Composed of various glands. Provides chemical (hormonal) control over many body functions.
Integumentary system Made up of the largest organ of the body, the skin, and its associated structures.
Created by: Raevyn1