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parasitology 7

exam 7

QuestionAnswer
the earliest representatives of Arthropoda are seen in which time period Cambrian. 520 mya
morphologic characteristics of arthropods 1.joint appendages 2.chitinous exoskeleton 3.segmented body 4.primitive CNS 5.Respiratory system
simple metamorphosis form emerging from egg looks like the adult. occupies same habitat throughout life cycle
complex metamorphosis form emerging from egg looks nothing like the adult. may occupy different habitats throughout the lifecycle
Trans-stadial parasites and other microorganisms are transferred from one development stage to the other.
Trans-ovarial vertical transmission. parasites and other microorganisms are transferred to the adult who incorporates the infection in her egg.
Ticks, mites, and spiders are part of what class Arachnida
Iodid common name Hard Ticks
General tick body plan fused two piece. Cephalothorax and opithosoma. chitinous exoskeleton w/ hard scutum
cephalothorax fused head and thorax
opithosoma abdomen
number of legs on adult and nymph tick 8
number of legs on larvae tick 6
what life cycle stage are ticks parasitic All lifecycle stages. all ticks suck blood
Most ticks have how many host life cycles 3
1 host tick completes entire lifecycle on single animal. molts to each life-stage on host. highly susceptible to control efforts
infectious disease transmission of 1 host tick transovarial, only mechanism for one-host tick to vector disease
2 host tick larvae and nymph on same host. adult on new host.
infectious disease transmission of 2 host tick interstadial. infectious agent acquired by larvae/nymph from host and passed to adult stage.
3 host tick all stages get different host. most common. pick up infectious agent anywhere during lifecycle
infectious disease transmission of 3 host tick interstadial. larvae to nymph or nymph to adult
disease associated with Ixodes scapularis lyme disease
disease associated with Amblyomma americanum STARI and Ehrlichiosis
disease associated with dermacentor varriabilis RMSF
Key diagnostic characteristics of ticks 1.Capitulum 2.scutum 3.festoons 4.Anal groove
Dermacentor variablilis sp. infect Dog and cat
Dermacentor variablilis life cycle length 3mo-2yr. 3 hosts
Dermacentor variablilis common name American Dog tick
Dermacentor variablilis associated disease 1.RMSF 2.Tularemia 3.Q fever 4.Tick paralysis
D. alnipictus life cycle length 1 host
D. alnipictus sp. infect Deer, elk, moose
D. alnipictus disease characteristic Hair loss/ lose BCS in winter "Winter Tick"
Rocky mountain spotted fever Acute disease associated with Rickettsial infection by D.varriabilis. non specific body aches and fever initially. Rash appears 2-5 days post exposure
Rocky mountain spotted fever seasonality April- Sept.
Rocky mountain spotted fever treatment AB. early diagnosis is key.
Tick paralysis associated w/ neurotoxic salivary component
Rapid ascending paresis respiratory failure. fatal if untreated
Amblyomma amerianum life cycle length 1-2 yr. 3 host
Amblyomma amerianum sp. infect Dog
STARI Associated w/ bite of Lone Star Tick
Ehrlichiosis acute disease of humans and animals. Gram neg bacteria invade WBC. low white blood cell count or low platelets.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus common name Brown Dog tick
Rhipicephalus sanguineus life cycle length as little as 2 mo. 3 host
Rhipicephalus sanguineus env distribution tropical. adapted to living indoors.
Haemaphysalis longicornus env distribution Eastern Asia. Cold hardy, over winters as nymph in Russia and Korea. Reportable to USDA
Haemaphysalis longicornus vector potential 1.Theileriosis 2.Anaplasmosis 3.Ehrlichiosis 4.Lyme borreliosis
Haemaphysalis longicornus repro Pathenogenically. males rare (unnecessary)
Ixodes scapularis common name Black legged tick
Ixodes scapularis life cycle 2yr. 3 host. ticks feed as larvae in summer/fall.
Ixodes scapularis vector potential "Lyme Disease tick". infected w/ Borrelia burgdorferi
Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus common name Texas cattle tick
Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus life cycle 1 host
Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus env distribution Mediterranean distribution.
Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus disease association Texas cattle fever
soft tick body morphology 1.leathery body 2.head not visible from above
soft tick general feeding model Vampire model
soft tick lay eggs in small batches, multiple times
Argas common name poultry tick
Argas species infect chickens, turkey, guinea fowl, pigeons, grouse
Argas life cycle length all stages withstand starvation for up to 2 yr. 3 host
Argas transmit what disease avian spirochetosis. tick paralysis
Ornithodoros species infect avian, rodent, deer and cattle
Ornithodoros life cycle larva don't feed. Nymphs require blood meal after each molt
Ornithodoros males have how many nymph stages 4
Ornithodoros females have how many nymph stages 5
Ornithodoros have how many oviposition periods 8
Ornithodoros transmit what disease Borrelosis "Tick borne relapsing fever". Zoonotic
Otobius common name spinose ear tick
Otobius species infect cattle, horse, livestock
sign animal has Otobius tick pawing at ear
Otobius life cycle lengh remain in ear canal up to 4 mo. 1 host. only larvae and nymphs parasitic.
Frontline for tick control use 24-48 hr post contact
K-9 advantix for tick control Imidiclopride and permethrin. repels and kills ticks. Not for cat use
Certifect for tick control Fipronil, S-methoprene, Amitraz. kills ticks w/in 6hrs, repels ticks 1 mo, fleas 3 mo.
Revolution for tick control Ticks drop off in 4-5 days. Too long, can still transmit disease
3 basic mite groups 1.mesostigmatid 2.astigmatid 3.prostigmatid
General ways mites cause disease to host 1. suck blood= anemia 2.dermatosis, pierce skin, irritation, inflammation at bite site, sloughing skin, oozing lymph 3. 2nd infection
Mesostigmatid mites body morphology 1.Stigmata b/w 3rd and 4th pair of legs 2. legs evenly spaced in anterior 1/2 of body 3. claws on end of tarsi 4.most free living
Mesostigmatid species types 1.Dermanyssus gallinane 2. Ornithonyssus sp.
Dermanyssus gallinane common name red roost mite of poultry
Dermanyssus gallinane are found where in env nests and bedding.
Dermanyssus gallinane clinical sig 1.anemia 2.zoonotic
Dermanyssus gallinane diagnosis needle like cheleceria
Ornithonyssus sp. in poultry called O.sylviarum
Ornithonyssus sp. in rodents called O.bacoti
Ornithonyssus sp. diagnosis scissor-like cheleceria
Astigmatid mites body morphology 1.no stigmata 2.2nd and 3rd pair of legs widely separated 3.suckers on end of tarsi 4.most parasites
what are the two general parasitic categories of Astigmatid mites 1.surface dwelling 2.skin burrowing
surface dwelling mites 1.Psoroptes ovis 2chorioptes bovis 3.otodectes cynotis 4.Notoedres
skin burrowing mites 1.Sarcoptes spp. 2.Sarcoptes scabiei var vanis
how do Psoroptes ovis feed pierce skin w/ chellicerae. suckers on long pedicles at end of tarsi feed on oozing serum. psoroptic scab formed.
Psoroptes ovis clinical sig Hair loss from rubbing and inflammation of dermis. diagnosis via mites at edge of scab. Reportable to USDA
how does Chorioptes bovis feed does not pierce skin. feeds on sloughed epidermal and epithelial debris. suckers at end of tarsi
Chorioptes bovis clinical sig superficial mildly pruritic, flaky dermatitis. found on legs, tail, pubic region. generally self limiting. not reportable
how does Otodectes cynotis feed found on outer ear canal of host. does not pierce skin. feeds on sloughed epidermal and epithelial debris.
Chorioptes bovis clinical sig superficial mildly, pruritic
Chorioptes bovis diagnosis ear swab of outer ear canal and observation of mites. black, waxy cerumen
how do Sarcoptes spp. feed found on pinna of ear, inguinal and hair less portions of body. burrow into and tennel under the skin. feed on serum, fluids, host protein. reportable to USDA
Sarcoptes spp. clinical sig pruritic, papular, erythrma related to burrowing, defecation and eggs laid in tunnels.
how do sarcoptic scabs form oozing serum resulting from scratching and self-mutilation. hair loss from rubbing and inflammation of dermis
Sarcoptes spp. diagnosis deep skin scape and edge of scab
Sarcoptes scabiei var canis common name canine mange mite
Sarcoptes scabiei var canis diagnostic pineal/pedal reflex
Sarcoptes scabiei var canis clinical sig deep scrape edge of crusty lesion. alopecia in inguinal areas
Notoedres common name feline mange mite
Notoedres diagnostic easy to demonstrate with skin scrape
ear mite treatment 1.pyrethrin based OTC solution. 2.milbemite (interceptor)
scabies treatment 1.revoultion 2.ivermectin 3.imidacloprid-moxidetin 4.milbemycin oxime/spinosad (trifexis)
two main body shapes of prostigmatid mites 1.mite shaped 2.cigar shaped
demodex common name hair follicle mite
demodex transmission skin to skin. 1 host.
demodex sp infect dog
demodectic mange localized. erythrma usually around muzzle. alopecia around eyes and pinnae. self limiting
demodectic mange with underlying condition generalized. red mange w/ dry flaky skin. erythema around elbows, alopecia around eyes and pinnae. impossible to cure
demodex body shape cigar shape
Cheyletiella common name walking dandruff mite
cheyetiella distinguishing characteristic massive palpal claw
cheyetiella sp infect dog, cat, rabbit. zoonotic
Family Trobiculidae include what mite chigger mite
chigger mite small (nearly microscopic), intense inflammatory responses to infestation.
chigger mite saliva used to dissolve/ liquify host tissue for food. result necrotized skin forms "stylostome" feeding tube.
chigger parasitic stage only larvae. ears of cats and dogs
mite treatment 1.macrocyclic lactones 2.demodex 3.fipronel 4.mitaban dip 5.imidacloprid-moxidectin and permethrin
ctenocephalides felis common name cat flea
ctenocephalides felis body shape laterally compressed
ctenocephalides felis parasitic stage adults on the host
ctenocephalides felis larva feed on defecated blood and organic debris in env
ctenocephalides canis common name dog flea
pulex simulans common name false human flea
pulex simulans sp. infect wild canids, rodents, opossums
flea lifecycle obligate blood suckers. required for maturation and reporduction
larva flea feed on digested blood and organic debris
flea stages found on the host adult
flea stages found in the env eggs, larvae, pupae
successful flea mitigation is based on what 1. killing fleas on primary host 2.killing adult fleas on reservoir host 3.preventing fleas from immediate reinfestation 4.elimating larval stage in env
products that kill fleas on the host 1.frontline (fipronil) 2.advantage (imidacloprid) 3.revolution (selemectin) 4. capstar(nitenpyram)
products for flea control 1. comfortis (spinosad) 2.seresto collar 3. nexgard (afoxolaner)
products that kill fleas in env 1.OTC products w/ methoprene/pyriproxyfen 2.revolution (selemectin) 3.program (lufenuron)
chewing and sucking lice lifecycle direct. highly host specific. poorly adapted for life off host
chewing and sucking lice body morphology dorso-ventrally flattened. wingless.
cat lice Felicoia subrostratus
dog lice 1. linognathus setosus 2. trichodectes canis
chewing lice body morphology head wider than thorax
sucking lice body morphology head more narrow than thorax
chewing lice feeding bites skin, chews feathers and feeds on sloughed dermis, oozing blood/serum
chewing lice sp infect birds and cats. grooming pressure
suckling lice feeding pierces skin, sucks blood, hypoproteinemia
sucking lice sp infect dogs, goats, horses, cows
pediculosis louse infestation. associated with young animals
louse seasonal distribution winter months w/ hair coat. crowed living. depressed immunity. low sunlight. poor nutrition
louse treatment/control in companion animal 1.fipronil 2.imidacloprid 3. selamectin
louse treatment/control in domestic livestock 1.macrocyclic lactones
human pediculosis host sp.
3 louse sp. that cause human pediculosis 1. pediculus humanus capitis 2. p. humanus humanus 3. pthiris pubis
human pediculosis treatment based on OTC pyrethroid products
reduviid bugs common name kissing bugs or assassin bugs
reduviid bugs feeding type vampire model. IH for Trypanosoma cruzi
reduviid bugs sp infect dogs and cats
cimex lectularius common name bedbug
cimex lectularius feeding type vampire model.
cimex lectularius sp. infect rabbits, poultry, pigeon, humans
flies general body morphology 2 pair wings. antennae, 6 legs, segmented body
flies parasitic stages adult or larvae. almost never both.
sand flies, mosquitoes, midgets general info small, delicate flies, weak fliers, only females blood suckers
sand flies, mosquitoes, midgets habitat aquatic
Lutzomyia/ phlebotomus I.H for leishmania sp. moist dark habitats
cullicoides queensland Itch. hypersensitivity rxn. Stagnate "nasty water"
simulium common name black flies
simulium painful bite, big swarms. fresh/clean, fast flowing water. controlled by avoidance of aquatic habitats
simulium clinical sig depression, dysorexia, sub Q edema
Mosquitoes metamorphosis complex. larvae aquatic and non parasitic
tabanus horse fly, domestic livestock
chrysops deer fly
types of non biting flies 1. musca domestica 2. musca autumalis
musca domestica common name common house fly
musca domestica IH for Draschia/ habronema
musca autumalis common name face fly
musca autumalis vector and IH for Thelazia, Pink eye
musca autumalis feeds on ocular/nasal discharge. host protein required for sexual maturation. chases biting flies off face to feed on blood
musca autumalis control oviposition in fresh feces. feed through effect of insecticides. dust bags on barn entrance
types of biting flies 1.hematobia irritans 2. stomoxys calcitrans
Hematobia irritans common name Horn fly. most important ectoparasite of cattle
Stomoxys calcitrans common name stable fly
Stomoxys calcitrans IH for habronema, trypanasoma evansi
Stomoxys calcitrans vector for EIA
Stomoxys calcitrans oviposit in old feces, damp and decaying organic material
Hematobia irritans oviposit in fresh manure
myiasis tissue invasion by larval flies
primary myiasis penetration of normal (healthy) tissues and fresh uninfected wounds
secondary myiasis invasion of suprative wounds. feed on necrotic tissue
larval flies that perform primary myiasis American Screwworm. Reportable to USDA
larval flies that perform secondary myiasis Blow flies, calliophora, phormia, phaencia, flesh flies
Gastrophilidae common name Bot flies
Gastrophilidae clinical sig larvae are obligate of the digestive tract and subQ tissues. Adults free living, non feeding
Gastrophilidae sp infect horse, dog, cat, aquirrel, sheep, cattle
Dermatobia hominis common name human Bots. robust bot flies (cuterebridae)
Hypoderma spp. common name cattle grubs
Hypoderma spp. clinical sig larvae obligate parasites in healthy tissue. in any anatomical location. fatal infections
Dermatobia hominis clinical sig larvae obligate parasites in healthy subQ tissues
oestrus spp. common name head maggots
oestrus spp. clinical sig larvae obligate parasites in nasal passages and paranasal sinuses
Treatment and prevention of bot flies 1. removal of larvae 2.prophylactic treatment in cattle "Pour on" 3.not treated in sheep 4. GI bots in horses w/ macrocylcic lactones
Created by: ejohnson17