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VET113 CH3 Vocb.

Anatomy of the Cell

CELL The most basic unit of life. [metabolism, grow, develop, reproduce, convert energy, adapt, respire, outside stimuli, stabilize internally]
ORGANISM Living individual, animal, or plant that is capable of independent existence. [multicellular or unicellular]
GENETIC MATERIAL Materials (ie: DNA) that perpetuate the genetic code through the function of reproduction. [governs: development, metabolism, specialization]
SPECIALIZATION Ability of an organism to differentiate to acquire new characteristics
OSTEOCYTE Mature bone cells that are located in spaces in the ossified matrix called lacunae.
MYOFIBRIL Fiber like structures that occupy most of cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) in skeletal muscle cells. Filaments of contractile proteins actin, myosin and packed together longitudinally in the muscle cells.
MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM Composed of many cells; work together (collaboratively) to sustain life for the animal as a whole.
Eukaryote True nucleus that contains chromosomes and has a nuclear envelope.
PROKARYOTE Unicellular organism; no true nucleus, nuclear envelope, or membrane-bound organelles.
PROTOPLASM The viscous fluid found within the cell.
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE Double-layered membrane; made of lipids that surrounds the nucleus and separates the inner nucleoplasm from the outer cytoplasm.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY [TEM] Generates 2-dimensional images; uses electrons rather than light. It sends a bean of electrons through a specimen.
LIGHT MICROSCOPY Works by using visible light to see tiny structures.
ELECTRON MICROSCOPY A powerful microscope that magnifies a sample by using an electron beam for illumination. [TEM & SEM]
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY [SEM] Generates 3-dimensional images; beam is generated and is scanned back and forth over the specimen, hence the term scanning electron microscope.
ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY [AFM] 3 dimensional image of incredibly small structures using a minute sharp-tipped probe attached to a delicate cantilever (atm). Allows use to look more deeply inside cells and to visualize the minute anatomical structures.
MORPHOLOGICAL Uniques structures that forms each individual organ, tissue cell, or the organism as a whole. [Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus]
PLASMALEMMA Cell membrane
COLLIDAL Referring to a gelatinous and viscous fluid. [CYTOPLASM]
METABOLITES Substances that are produces during metabolism. [CYTOPLASM]
CELL MEMBRANE Selectively permeable outer membrane of the cell that is composed of phospholipid bilayer, protein and cholesterol. {plasmalemma & plasma membrane]
FLUID MOSAIC Constantly changing pattern of proteins and fluid between the 2 sides of the liquid bilayer.
GLOBULAR PROTEIN Complex proteins bearing a spherical shape. Responsible for the membrane's special functions.
LIPID BILAYER Double-layered membrane made of phospholipids. [cell membrane & nuclear envelope]
INTEGRAL PROTEIN Span the entire width of membrane and may create channels through which other molecules can pass.
PORES Channels within the protein molecule that allows substances pass with no resistance [INTEGRAL PROTEIN]
PERIPHERAL PROTEIN Bound to the inside or outside surfaces of the cell's membrane. Restricted in movements, attached to internal cytoskeleton, acts as enzymes to catalyze the changing shape.
KERATIN FIBER Proteins and lipids on the outer layer are attached to sugar groups. [PERIPHERAL PROTEINS]
GLYCOPROTEINS Compound composed of carbohydrates [Sugar and Proteins]
GLYCOLIPIDS Compound composed of carbohydrates [Sugar and Phosopholipids]. Forms sugar and a fatty acid together.
GLYCOCALYX Covering of cell that aids cell adhesion but also allows cell to be identified by other cells. The principle component "sugar coat".
ENZYME Specialized globular protein. Carries out and/or speeds up chemical reactions by acting as a catalyst and lowers the temp necessary for the reaction to take place. [Never changes or uses up themselves]
CATALYZE Substance that induces chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed. Uses enzymes to activate.
CELL ADHESION MOLECULE [CAMs] Glycoproteins that aid in the bonding of cells and lubrication the movement of one cell past another. Helps transport specialized cells to area of needs.
MEMBRANE RECEPTORS Integral proteins and glycoproteins that act as binding sites on cell surfaces. [cell-to-cell recognition]
CONTACTING SIGNALING Cell-to-cell recognition
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE Response of the body's cells that regulates the destruction of infectious bacteria and viruses during specific immune responses. ["KILLER" cells]
LIGAND Small molecules that bond to larger chemical groups or molecules. [bring change to cell activity]
CHEMICAL SIGNALING Specific interaction of hormones and neurotransmitters with cell surfaces for the purpose of changing cell activity.
RAFT Specialized regions in plasmalemma and also in the membranes of the Golgi and lysosomes. Regulates protein trafficking fluidity of membranes and neurotransmitters.
CAVEOLAE Tiny invaginations of plasma membrane of vertebrate cells, particular endothelial and fat cells. Play a role in the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and certain viruses.
BASAL BODY Pair of tubular structures that are composed of 9 microtubules surrounding another pair of microtubules. [Cilia and Flagella]
CILIA Hairlike processes of the luminal surfaces of cells that assist in the movement of mucus, fluid, and solid material across the cell surface.
FLAGELLA [FLAGELLUM, SINGULAR] Primary means of motility for spermatozoa and unicellular organisms. Threadlike tail propels the organism by means of a whiplike movement.
CYTOPLASM Everything inside the cell membrane other than the nucleus and genetic materical
ORGANELLE Specialized structures within a cell that carry out specific functions for that cell.
CYTOSOL The fluid component of protoplasm that acts as its base. [jam-like substance]
MICROTUBULE Tiny, hollow, tubelike structures that aid certain cells with rigidity and transportations. Form secure cables.
MICROFILAMENT Closely associated with microtubules that are found in most cells a d are composed mostly of actin. Assembled when and where needed.
CYTOSKELETON Internal structure of the cell that maintains the cell's shape and aids in some functions.
TONOFILAMENT Thin filaments that provide structural support for certain membrane junctions. They are important in tissue that needs to fix.
INTERMEDIARY FIBER [INTERMEDIATE] Fibers that are specialized to the cell in which they are contained. Woven, roselike fibers that possess high tensile strength and able to resist to forces pulling on cell by acting as internal guy wires.
SECRETORY GRANULES Materials that have been brought into the cell and are separated from the cytoplasm by a single membranous boundary.
TUBULINS Pair of spherical molecules which are linked together into a spiral chain. [MICROTUBULES]
ACTIN Protein
MYOSIN Protein that is present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle proteins.
CENTRIOLE Tubular organelle composed of 9 triplets or microtubules that aids in the process of cell division. Enables the cell to divide into 2.
ASTERS Long rods of microtubules that radiate away from centrioles and forming anchors to larger centrosomes.
CRISTAL [CRISTERNA] A reservoir that stores fluid. Folds within the mitochondria that increase ATP outputs by increasing surface area.
FISSION Process when cellular requirements for energy increased, and the mitochondria divides bob pinching itself in half.
MICROTRABECULAE 4th component of the cytoskeleton thought to add, form, support, and substance to the cell's inner anatomy.
PERICENTRIOLAR MATERIAL [PCM] Concentrated amorphous collection of proteins. Center of centrioles.
SPINDLE APPARATUS Structure during mitosis connects to the centromeres of the chromosomes for the purpose of division
MITOCHONDRIA Primary sources of ATP formation for aerobic cell respiration. DNA and RNA
MATRIX Intracellular materials of connective tissue. Fills the spaces between the cristae.
RIBOSOMES Organelle composed of ribonucleic acid, located on the rough endoplasmic reticulum or suspended in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis takes place.
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM [ER] Active in synthesis and storage of lipids. Lacks ribosomes, connects to rough ER, large quanities in gland cells.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM [ER] Systems of channels within the cell that run from the nucleus to the exterior cell membrane. Molecules that are produced by ER are transported to the Golgi apparatus.
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM [ER] Production of proteins that are modified here before moving to the Golgi apparatus for further modification and packaging.
GOLGI APPARATUS An organelle located near the nucleus that looks like sacs that are stacked and flattened and ends. Involved in synthesis of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and enzymes.
LYSOSOMES Organelle that fights pathogens, repairs damaged tissues and aids in intracellular digestion by engulfing materials within it's membrane bound vesicle bodies.
CISTERNAL Reservoir of h20, passageways.
AUTOLYSIS The self-digestion of tissues or cells by enzymes that are releases by their own lysosomes.
PROTEASOME Tiny organelle found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm that breaks down individual proteins no longer needed. Expells short chains of amino acids.
PEROXISOME Single - membraned vesicle detoxifies the body by releasing catalase and other enzymes. [Kidney and liver cells]
CATALASES An enzyme found in almost all cells that break down hydrogen peroxide into h20 and 0
PEROXIDASES A catalyst [ENZYME] that converts free radicals into hydrogen peroxide. Function that is essential for cellular respiration.
VAULT Small transport structures that shuttle molecules to and from the nucleus in the cell [ENTERING OR EXITING NUCLEUS]. Can open one end to pick up or drop off ribosomal subunits or large molecules.
INCLUSION Temporary component of a cell that is lifeless, having been brought into the cell via phagocytosis. STORAGE UNITS
VACUOLES A clear space in the cytoplasm of a cell. Surrounded by cell membrane. Often filled with water and solutes that are transported to and from the cell surfaces.
NUCLEUS Largest organelle in the cell. Control center, the brain, and contains hereditary information [DNA].
MULTINUCLEATED More than one nucleus
ANUCLEATE No nuclei, cannot divide, make protein or enzymes or repair themselves.
NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX Double-layered membrane made of lipids that surrounds nucleus and separates the inner nucleoplasm from the outer cytoplasm. [NUCLEAR MEMBRANE]
PERINUCLEAR CISTERNA Space between the bilayers of the nuclear envelope
NUCLEOPLASM Gelatinous substance that is the protoplasm of the nucleus,
DOUBLE HELIX The double could seen in DNA that contain specific nucleotides whereby one set determines the corresponding set. [WATSON-CRICK HELIX]
NUCLEOTIDES Combinations of phosphoric acid, pentose sugars, and pyrimidine or purine bases that make up nucleic acids.
ADENINE [A] Nucleotides present in both DNA [Thymine, T] and RNA [Uracil, U].
CYTOSINE [C[ Nucleotide present in RNA and DNA. Only bond with Thymine [T].
GUANINE [G] Nucleotide present in bother DNA and RNA. Only bonds with Cytosine [C].
THYMINE [T] Nucleotide present ONLY in DNA. Only bonds with Adenine [A]
URACIL [U] Nucleotide present ONLY in RNA. Only bonds with Adenine [A]
CHROMATIN A material that is composed of DNA and protein and makes up chromosomes. [Globular proteins]
HISTONES Globular protein found in the cell nucleus that connects with nucleic acid to form nuclei-proteins. Form complex with DNA in chromatin and act as regulators of gene activity.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID [DNA] Genetic material of a living thing, found in strands called chromatin within the nucleus of the cell.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID [RNA] Nucleic acid used in protein synthesis. Uses ribose instead of deoxyribose.
NUCLEOSOME Granule formed when a single strand of DNA winds around 8 histone molecules. Held together by short strands of DNA
CHROMOSOME Threadlike accumulations of DNA in the nuclei of cells that are particularly visible during mitosis. DNA contains the genetic material of the cell. "Supercoiled",
GENES Specific sites on chromosomes that are dictate heredity. "Exposed genes determine what proteins will be made by the cell."
GENE REGULATION Histones that control gene expresion
EXTENDED CHROMATIN Strands of chromatin that are actively engages in protein synthesis are uncoiled.
NUCLEOLI [NUCLEOLUS, single] Dark, spherical object contained within the nucleus that is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis. Composed of DNA, RNA, and proteins.
ROBERT HOOKE Creator of first light microscopes. Observed tiny units that made up a cork.
PRION Small, protein-based particle that is both infectious and resilient yet not a living pathogen.
SPINDLE FIBER Aid in mitosis by connecting to the cell's chromosomes at their centromeres, creating the pull necessary to divide them. METAPHASE STAGE OF CELL DIVISION
SCRAPIE Contagious and fatal disease caused by prions (in sheep and goats). Leads to prolonged illness that results in death. Incubation period is about 2 years.
IMMUNIZATIONS Process of creating immunity within an animal usually by introducing a killed or modified culture of infectious agent's antigen.
VIRUS Simplest organism, composed of RNA and DNA. Must establish parasitic relationships with another cell to perform functions. Identifiable by their antigens.
Created by: jsaucedo



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