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exam 6

preload how full is cardiovascular system w/blood. affected via dehydration and trauma. amount of blood in heart before it contracts.
afterload how hard it is for heart to eject blood. once filled it is easy or hard to contract. resistance to ejection
contactality force/tension. force and velocity
elastance stiffness of something you stretch. relationship b/w volume and pressure
what did William Harvey discover blood moved around a circuit
vascular capacitance volume/pressure
relationship between area and velocity as area increases velocity decreases with constant flow
cardiac output (mean arterial pressure- right atrial pressure)/ total peripheral resistance
pressure relationship in arteries and veins low in vein, high in arteries. Therefore blood flows from arteries to veins.
ejection fraction amount 50-60%
resistance in series increases b/c additive effect
resistance in parallel decreases
when does a murmur occur when flow is too high and creates turbulance. loudness does not determine severity.
why do capillaries have the largest SA but low blood volume they are so small. small proportion overall exchange takes place in them.
stressed volume the amount of blood that determines vascular filling pressure. 20-25% of the total blood volume
unstressed volume large reservoir of available blood that can be recruited to maintain vascular filling pressure
alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors activate smooth muscle. cause vasoconstriction. transfer blood volume to arterioles from veins. blood must have gone through lungs. 8-15ml/kg transfusion rate.
normal mean pressure mm Hg in aorta 80-100.
what happens if mean pressure mm HG in aorta is less than 60 potential for some organs to not be adequately profused. gut and kidney deprived first.
is pressure lower in right or left atrium right atrium
pulse pressure difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.
phase 4 resting membrane potential via Na/K ATPase pump
phase 1 when hit threshold potential, change mem enough, Na enter rapidly via voltage gated channels. cell more and more pos. when too pos, cl and k channel open. move neg.
phase 2 plateau phase. still pos, Ca enters cell with Na via L type Ca channel.
phase 3 more neg with K leaving cell. repolarization.
examples of latent pacemakers in heart 1. AV node 2. Bundle of His 3. Purkinje fibers
Created by: ejohnson17



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