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VET113 CH2 Vocab.

Chemical Basis for Life

ELEMENT Any of 118 known substances that cannot be separated into smaller substances.
NUCLEUS Part of the cell that contains DNA and aids in several body functions. -reproduction -metabolism -growth
MATTER Anything that has mass and exists as a solid, liquid, or gas.
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS Gives important information about each element: - Chemical Symbol - Atomic # - Atomic weight
CHEMICAL SYMBOL Abbreviation of the name of a chemical element. Used to identify the element in the Periodic Table of Elements.
ATOM Smallest unit of an element having all the characteristics of that element. Contains + charged nucleus surrounded by a system of - charged elements.
PROTON Subatomic particle with a + charge. # of protons defines the atom as a specific element. PROTONS + NEUTRONS = NUCLEUS MASS
NEUTRON Subatomic particle with no electrical charge. Joins with protons to make up the entire mass of the nucleus.
ELECTRON Lightweight subatomic particle that carries a - charge. The particles are responsible for chemical bonding. ELECTRON + NUCLEI = ATOM
ATOMIC NUCLEUS Dense region at the center of an atom consisting of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons. PROTONS + NEUTRONS
ATOMIC WEIGHT Average mass of an element. Equal to atomic mass of the PROTONS + NEUTRONS in the atom. Constant state of motion. Net electrical charge is neutral.
ATOMIC NUMBER A dense region at the center of an atom consisting of + charge protons and uncharged neutrons. # OF PROTONS IN THE NUCLEUS
PLANETARY MODEL Protons and neutrons encircled by electrons which orbit. This explains interactions but is not physically accurate.
ORBITAL MODEL 3 dimensional view and the location of the electrons at any given time. More accurate.
ION Electrically charged atom of molecule. - Cations - Anions
ISOTOPE 1 of 2 or more atoms having the same atomic number (# of protons) but different atomic masses (different # of neutrons)
RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE -Unstable isotope of an element that decomposes spontaneously by emission of subatomic particles and radiation. -Spontaneously emits particle of energy at a constant rate - "Rate of Decay"
RATE OF DECAY The rate of a radioactive isotope spontaneously emits particles of energy and changes into a stable, nonradioactive element. (used to measure in rock and used to date fossils)
ELECTRON SHELL Grouping of electrons around the nucleus of an atom. Determined by the energy level of the electron. Electrons in the outer shell are the ones responsible for chemical reactions. - Lower # = closer to nucleus - <ost stable when shells are full
MOLECULE Smallest particle of a substance. 2 or more atoms and retains the properties of the substances.
COMPOUND Substance made up of 2+ elements.
COLLOID DO NOT SETTLE! Emulsions; heterogeneous mixtures that contain much larger sized solutes than those found in solutions. - iE: jello
MIXTURE Combination of 2+ substances. 3 TYPES: 1. Solutions 2. Colloids 3. Suspentions
SUSPENSION Heterogeneous mixtures containing large solutes that readily separate from the solution which there is no movement of the suspension - IE: blood when it settles.
HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURE Having a mixed composition (not uniformed)
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE Having a uniformed composition.
CHEMICAL BOND A force by which atoms are bound in a molecule. 2 atoms are sharing or transferring electrons between them. 3 TYPES: 1. Covalent 2. Ionic 3. Hydrogen
COVALENT BOND Chemical bonds in which electrons are shared.
SINGLE COVALENT BOND One electron is shared
DOUBLE COVALENT BOND 2 electrons are shared in the bond.
TRIPLE COVALENT BOND A bond formed with 3 electrons being shared.
IONIC BOND Type of chemical bond formed by the electrostatic attraction between 2 oppositely charged atoms or molecules (ions). Electrons are TRANSFERRED from one atom to another atom. - loses electrons = develops + charge -adds electrons = develops - charge
ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION Attractive force between 2 particles of opposite electric charge. Force is proportional to the magnitude of the charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the particles.
ANION A negatively charged atom or molecules/ion
CATION A positively charged atom, molecule or ion
HYDROGEN BONDS More of an electrostatic attraction than a true bond because electrons are neither shared nor transferred.
CHEMICAL REACTION A process that results in the creation of new chemicals, involving changes in the movement of electrons in forming and breaking chemical bonds. 3 TYPES: 1. Synthesis 2. Decomposition 3. Exchange
CHEMICAL EQUATION A symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. Arrows are used to denote in which direction the reaction is occurring.
REACTANT Substances initially involved in a chemical equation (X+Y)
PRODUCT New substances created by the interaction of 2+ chemical substances (Z). X + Y = Z
SYNTHESIS REACTION Chemical reaction in which elements or simple molecular reactants are combined into a more complex product. Smaller particles are bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules X + Y = XY
ANABOLIC CONSTRUCTIVE Process by which the cells uses energy to manufacture large molecules from small ones. Underlie synthesis during growth and repair.
DECOMPOSITION REACTION Chemical reaction in which a complex reactant is divided into simpler molecules or elements. BREAKDOWN Bonds are broken in larger molecules, resulting in smaller, less complex molecules. Catabolic
CATABOLIC DEGRADATIVE Breaking down nutrients into smaller and simpler materials for use by the cell to release energy. 2H2O = 2H2 + O2
EXCHANGE REACTION Chemical reaction in which chemical substances exchange molecules or elements to form different chemical substances, Bonds are both made and broken
ACTIVATION ENERGY The minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur Higher activation energy =. more energy
CATALYST Substance that induces chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed "Speeds up"
ENZYME Specialized globular protein that carries out and/or speeds up chemical reactions in the body by acting as a catalyst and lowering the temp necessary for the reaction to take place. -Change rate of reaction -Never changed or used up completely
CHEMICAL ELEMENT Any of 116 known substances that cannot be separated into smaller substances. Million of combinations. All living organisms are composed of only a few elements.
ORGANIC COMPOUND Compound containing hydrocarbon groups. -Complex -Covalent Bonds
INORGANIC COMPOUND A chemical that does not contain hydrocarbon groups. Ionic bonds Small
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Unique, specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristics chemical reactions of those molecules. - Determines functionality of molecules as a whole.
H2O (INORGANIC) - Simple with unique properties - Covalently bonded - Polar molecule - Universal solvent -Ideal transport medium
SOLUTION - Homogeneous mixtures of 2+ substances; usually clear and doesn't scatter light nor settle out. - CHEMICALS + H2O = SOLUTION - Component with greatest amount is called a solvent.
SOLVENT Substance in which another substance is dissolved (H2O molecules surround molecules of solute)
HYDROPHILLIC - Tendency of a tissue to be absorb or be attracted to H2O - Polar molecules - Ions - Chemicals dissolve in H2O
SOLUTE - Substance that is dissolved in another substance - Component of a solution that is present in the lesser amount. - Chemicals are added to H2O
HYDROPHOBIC - Tendency of a tissue to be repelled by H2O or to be insoluble - FEAR - Electrically neutral - Nonpolar molecules (LIPIDS) - No bonds are made
POLAR MOLECULE - Oppositely charged ends - Slight + charge in the area of the H atoms and a slight - charge in the area of the O atom. - Allows H2O molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other and other polar molecules.
SALT - Any ionic compounds composed of + charged cations and - charged anions so that the product is electrically neutral. - Immediately ionizes when H2O added
ELECTROLYTES - Substances that have the ability to transmit an electrical charge - Nerve impulses = Na+ and K+ - Muscle = Na+, K+, and Ca2+
BASE - Substances that dissolve in H2O to yield hydroxyl ions and give the solution a pH greater than 7 - Ionically bonded (ionize in H2O) but release a hydroxyl ion (OH) - Proton acceptors
ACID - Substances that dissolve in H2O to yield hydrogen ions and produce a solution with pH less than 7. - Ionically bonded substances that freely release H+ ions - H+ donors - Proton donors - Electrolytes
NEUTRALIZE To cause the pH of a solution to approach 7 (neutral) ACID + BASE = NEUTRALIZE
PH SCALE - Acidity and alkalinity - 1 = most acidic - 14 = most alkalinize (basic) - 7 = neutral
BUFFER - Substance that minimizes the change of the acidity of a solution when an acid or base is added. - Keeps pH neutral
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Function to fortify blood with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. CO2
MACROMOLECULE - Large molecule consisting of smaller units linked together - Repeating - Long and complex - Organic molecules (POLYSACCHARIDE AND POLYPEPTIDE)
CARBOHYDRATE - One of the essential nutrients necessary for all life functions; sugars - Quick source of energy - Stored as glycogen - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (TABLE SUGAR, STARCH, CELLULOSE)
MONOSACCHARIDE SIMPLE SUGAR (ex: glucose, galactose, fructose) - Single sugar molecules - Most stable as a ring ribose - Deoxyribose
HEXOSE SUGAR Simple sugar that has 6 cartoon atoms per molecule GLUCOSE
PENTOSE SUGAR Simple sugar with 5 carbon atoms per molecule (ex: deoxyribose, ribose)
DISACCARIDE TWO SUGARS (ex: Sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, lactose) - 2 monosaccacharides are joined together the reaction is a synthesis reaction and creates H2O - Simple carbohydrates
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS - Combination of 2+ simple materials to form 1+ complex materials by removing H2O - 2 monosaccharides form 1 disaccharide
HYDROLYSIS - One of the most basic and prevalent life processes - Breaks down more complex materials into simpler ones by H2O (dissociates) IE: H2O = H + OH
POLYSACCHARIDES COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES (ex: starches, glycogen, cellulose) - Combination of many monosaccharides all joined by dehydration synthesis - Structural or a full storage function
CYTOSINE (C) - One of the nucleotides present in both RNA and DNA - Pairs with Guanine (G)
GUANINE (G) - One of the nucleotides that is present in both RNA and DNA - Pairs with CYTOSINE (C)
THYMINE (T) - One of the nucleotides present in ONLY DNA - Pairs with ADENINE (A)
URACIL (U) - One of the nucleotides that is present in ONLY RNA - Pairs with ADENINE (A)
GLYCOPROTEIN Compound composed of a carbohydrate and usually in the form of sugar and protein.
LIPID - Group of fatty or catlike substances that are insoluble in H2O - Chemical messengers "Used in the body energy and are stored in fat for future energy needs."
NEUTRAL FAT SIMPLE FATS (ex: triglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids, lipoproteins) - Lipid composed of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol - Hydrophobic
TRIGLYCERIDE - A glycerol composed of 3 fatty acids - Main storage form of H2O-insoluble lipids
GLYCEROL - Main component of triglycerides present in all fats - C3H8O3 - Triglycerides are soluble in H2O and alcohol
FATTY ACID - Organic compounds of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon that, when mixed with glycerol, forms fat. - Insoluble in H2O 1. Saturated (no double bonds) 2. Unsaturated (1 double bond) 3. Polyunsaturated (2 double bonds) 4. Volatile
SATURATED FATTY ACID - Found in animal fats (EX: butter and lard) - NO double bonds - Carbon chains - Accommodate maximum # of H atoms - Solid at room temp - As many H atoms as possible are attached to C
UNSATURATED FATTY ACID - Breakdown products of fat metabolism - Not all chemical binding sites of molecules are filled - 1+ double bonds in carbon chains - Liquid at room temps - Monounsaturated (1 double bond) - Polyunsaturated (2 double bonds) - Found in plant oils
LIPOPROTEIN MOLECULE - Contains both lipid and a protein - Function as transmembrane proteins to transport molecules across cell membranes or transport proteins for the movement of fat molecules in the blood. - Transport Fat
PHOSPHOLIPIDS GLYCEROL BACKBONE - Any lipid that contains phosphorus - Phospholipids are the main components of the cell membrane - Molecule with 3 parts: 1. Phosphorus 2. Fatty Acid 3. Nitrogenous base
STEROID - Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton that contains 4 fused rings. - Hydrophobic - Nonpolar - Very little oxygen - EX: cholesterol and steroid hormones "Lipids that take the form of 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings."
EICOSANOID RING STRUCTURE - Any group of substances derived from 20 - carbon unsaturated fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid. - Principal mediators of inflammation (EX: prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes)
PROSTAGLANDINS (PGs) Mediate inflammation (eicosanoids)
THROMBOXANE Mediates platelet function (EICOSANOIDS)
LEUKOTRIENES Mediate bronchoconstriction and increased mucus production (EICOSANOIDS)
PROTEIN - LG organic compounds that are composed of amino acids held in peptide bonds to form polypeptides. - Synthesized by all living things - Essential for basic maintenance of animal tissue
AMINO ACID - Basic building blocks of peptides and proteins - Organic compounds, numbering around 80, that have both, amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH) - Make up proteins when joined together in peptide bonds
PEPTIDE BOND - Covalent joining of 1 amino acid to another to form a peptide - Molecule containing 2 or more amino acids joined together - Forms PROTEIN
DIPEPTIDE Molecule containing 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond SHORT CHAINS
TRIPEPTIDE Peptide containing 3 amino acids
POLYPEPTIDE Chains of more than 10 amino acids OLIGOPEPTIDES
PRIMARY STRUCTURE - A long chain of amino acids held together with peptide bonds, - Sequence and # of amino acids that link together to form the peptide chain.
SECONDARY STRUCTURE Natural bond to form 3 dimensions
TERTIARY STRUCTURE Overall shape of a single protein molecule.
DISULFIDE BOND A sulfer atom in one part of the protein covalently bonded to a surfer atom in another part of the protein
QUATERNARY STRUCTURE 2+ protein chains = complex macromolecule
STRUCTURAL PROTEIN *FIBROUS PROTEINS* -Proteins that form body structures - Stable, rigid, H2O insoluble proteins that are used for adding strength. (EX: hair and collagen)
FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN - Globular proteins - Complex proteins bearing a spherical shape - Highly biochemically active - H2O soluble and have flexible, 3-dimensional shape, can change under different circumstances. (EX: hemoglobins, antibodies, enzymes)
SUBSTRATE - Substance acted on by an enzyme
ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM Final and most productive stage of cellular respiration *MITOCHONDRIA*
HYPERTHERMIA - Heat stroke - Temps elevated
NUCLEUC ACID Largest molecules in the body and are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus. DNA RNA
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) - Genetic material of a living thing, found in strands called chromatin within the nucleus of the cell - Determines shape and function - Molecule that contains all the instructions needed by the cell to build proteins *BLUEPRINT*
NUCLEOTIDE - Combinations of phosphoric acid, pentose sugars, and pyrimidine or purine base that makes up nucleic acid *BUILDING BLOCKS* 1. Adenine (DNA & RNA) 2. Guanine (DNA & RNA) 3. CYTOSINE (DNA & RNA) 4. URACIL (RNA) 5. THYMINE (DNA)
CHROMOSOME - Threadlike accumulations of DNA in the nuclei of cells that are particularly visible during mitosis. - DNA contains the genetic material of the cell - # is constant with given species *REPLICATE DURING CELL DIVISION*
rRNA *RIBOSOMAL RNA* - Creates proteins with info. - Main components of ribosomes - Aids in protein synthesis and the combination of amino acids to create protein molecules
mRNA *MESSENGER RNA* - Carries info OUT of nucleus - Protein synthesis - Transfer specific amino acid sequence of genetic code of DNA to the cytoplasm where protein is synthesized.
tRNA *TRANSFER RNA* - Copies info in the DNA - Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes for protein sythesis - Each 20 amino acids has its own specific type of tRNA which places it in the appropriate order for they specific type of protein being synthesized.
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE *ATP* - High energy molecule produced in mitochondria - 3 phosphoric acid groups - Energy currency of cells - More active the cell = more ATP produced and stored.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION - The oxidation of organic material to yield energy, carbon dioxide, and H2O - Nutrients are added to the body, and the cells use up the nutrients (process)
HIGH-ENERGY BONDS - Phosphate bonds in ADP and ATP containing LG amounts of energy - ATP molecule used to move energy to the cell when phosphate bond is broken, the energy contained in the bond is available to do cellular work.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID *RNA* - Used in protein synthesis - Uses ribose - SCANNER/FAX/PRINTER - 3 types 1. tRNA 2. mRNA 3. rRNA
ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE *ATP* - Nucleotide that contains 1 phosphoric acid group - Produced by hydrolysis of 1 high - energy phosphate bond of ADP; releases energy that can be used by cells or phosphorylate back into ADP
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE *ADP* - "discharged" from the ATP - Nucleotide that contains 2 phosphoric acid groups. Phosphate group is split off of an ATP molecule to produce ADP. Energy is released that powers the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle over each other.
Created by: jsaucedo



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