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exam 5

epaxial muscles lie dorsal to the transverse processes of the vertebrae. extend the vertebral column.
epaxial muscles general function produce lateral movements when acting only on one side
hypaxial muscles all other trunk muscles no included in the epaxial division. includes muscles of the thoracic and abdominal wall
hypaxial muscles general function flex vertebral column
C6 radiograph landmark expanded ventral laminae of transverse processes
C7 radiograph landmark lacks transverse foramina. has caudal costal foveae
transverse ligament of the atlas holds dense in place against fovea dentis
apical and alar ligaments of the dens attach cranial end of dens to ventral aspect of foramen magnum
dorsal atlantoaxial ligament thick ligament connecting spine of atlas to arch of atlas
supraspinous ligament connects apices of spinous processes from Cd3 to T1. Fibrous CT
Nuchal ligament cranial continuation of above into cervical region. Apex of T1 spinous process to spine of atlas. elastic. absent in cats
dorsal longitudinal ligament dorsal to vertebral body. runs in floor of vertebral canal from the axis to the end of the vertebral canal in the causal region. inside vertebral canal
ventral longitudinal ligament ventral to vertebral body. extends from sacrum to axis
interspinous ligaments connect adjacent vertebral spines
yellow ligaments extend between vertebral arches. dorsally bound epidural space between vertebrae
intercapital ligaments connect left and right rib heads across dorsal aspect of anulus fibrosus from 2nd-10th rib. "bolsters" IV disk where present reducing incidence of extrusion in this region.
inspiratory muscles function to enlarge the volume of the thoracic cavity. draw air into lungs
expiratory muscles function to diminish the volume of the thoracic cavity. expel air from lungs
what is the most important muscle of inspiration diaphragm
muscles that function to draw the ribs cranially and out 1.scalenus 2.serratus dorsalis cranialis
scalenus m. function in inspiration attached to transverse processes of cervical vertebrae cranially and the first few ribs caudally
serratus dorsalis cranialis m function in inspiration arises from the thoracolumbar fascia and courses caudoventrally to the craniolateral surface of ribs 2-10
expiration is a function of what elastic recoil of lungs. passive process
forceful expiration contraction of muscles of the abdominal wall and serratus dorsalis caudalis
serratus dorsalis caudalis m. function in expiration courses cranioventrally from the thoracolumbar fascia to the caudal surfaces of the last few ribs
intercostal muscles run from rib to rib and function to unite the ribs together.
muscle fiber direction of external intercostal mm caudoventrally
muscle fiber direction of internal intercostal mm. cranioventrally
sternal ribs true. attach to the sternum. ribs 1-9
asternal ribs false. caudal to the sternum. ribs 10-13
costal arch united costal cartilages of ribs 10-12
floating rib 13th rib fails to make contact with the costal arch and instead ends freely in the flank.
lumbocostal arch sympathetic trunk and major splanchnic nerve
aortic hiatus aorta, azygos vein, thoracic duct
esophageal hiatus esophagus, dorsal/vental vagal trunk
caval forament caudal vena cava
endothoracic fascia suberous fascia. connective tissue lining the thoracic cavity and attaching the pleurae to the thoracic wall and diaphragm. cranially passes through thoracic inlet and blends with the deep cervical fascia
pleura mesothelial membrane which lines the thoracic cavity. encloses the mediastinum and covers the lungs to create 2 pleural cavities within the thoracic cavity.
mesothelium simple squamous epithelium which lines the body cavity. form within the mesoderm
mediastinum midline partition of the thorax which separates the 2 pleural cavities. 2 layers of mediastinal pleurae and the space b/w them.
what is enclosed within the mediastinum thymus, lymph nodes, heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, nerves, vessels
pulmonary pleura is what type of pleura visceral
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic pleura is what type of pleura parietal
ligaments and folds are what type of pleura connecting
pericardium fibroserous covering of the heart
serous pericardium mesothelial sac enclosing the pericardial cavity.
fibeous pericardium fibrous CT covering the parietal layer of serous pericardium.
pericardial sac composite structure, consisting of 3 layers that surrounds the pericardial cavity.
fibrous pericardium clinical sig prevents sig distension of the pericardial cavity in the short term. excessive fluid accumulation results in compression of heart.
carina midline cartilaginous crest where trachea divides into right and left principal bronchi
tracheal bifurcation dorsal to the cranial part of the base of the heart
lobes of left lung cranial and caudal. cranial divided into cranial and caudal
lobes of right lung cranial, caudal, middle, accessory
cardiac notch low in the right 4th and 5th intercostal space. right lung
pulmonary arteries carry non aerated blood from the right ventricle to the heart to the lungs for gaseous exchange. functional blood supply
bronchoesophageal artery keep lung tissue alive. from the right 5th intercostal artery
the heart sits roughly from what intercostal spaces in avg dog 3-6. 2-6 in cats
long axis of the heart slopes what direction caudoventrally
main part of rt atrium sinus venarum
blind part of rt atrium rt auricle
coronary sinus venous return from the heart itself
intervenous tubercle diverts inflowing blood from caval veins into rt A-V orifice
pectinate mm interlacing muscular bands which strengthen atrial wall
conus arteriosus funnel shaped part of rt ventricle leading to pulmonary trunk
paillary mm conical shaped muscular projections that give rise to the chordae tendinae
chordae tendinae prevent eversion of A-V valves. "parachute cords"
trabeculae carneae myocardial ridges on lining of ventricles
trabecula septomarginalis conducts purkinje fibers across lumen of ventricle
systole contraction
diastole relaxation
s1 "lub" closure of AV valves
s2 "dub" closure of semilinar valves
pulmonary PMI Low in left 3rd
aortic PMI High in left 4th
left AV valve low in left 5th
right AV valve low in right 4th
thoracic duct lymph empties near the left venous angle. receives lymph from 3/4 of body
right lymphatic duct empties near the right venous angle. receives lymph from rt half of head and neck and rt thoracic limb and shoulder
unique features of fetal bio 1.lungs are shrunken,nonfunctional, resistant to blood flow 2.oxygenation and nutrient waste exchange via placenta
umbilical arteries carry fetal blood out through the umbilical cord to the placenta for nutrient waste exchange
umbilical vein returns fetal blood from placenta to fetus. umbilical cord to liver and continues through the liver as a channel (ductus venosus)
foramen ovale passage through interatrial septum. allows some of the blood to bypass the lungs by flowing directly from the right atrium to the left atrium
ductus arteriosus vascular connection b/w pulmonary trunk and aorta. allows most of the blood from the rt ventricle to bypass the nonfunctional lungs. pass directly into aorta
pre bladder portions of umbilica artery regress to form round ligaments of the urinary bladder
umbilical vein becomes round ligament of liver
round ligament of liver a fibrous cord that courses within the falciform ligament from the umbilicus to the liver
ductus venosus becomes ligamentum venosum
ductus arteriosus becomes ligamentum arteriosum
Foramen ovale fibroses to become fossa ovalis
cerebellum coordination
brainstem relay center. junior management. part brain/part spinal cord
cerebrum association decision making. planning.
gray matter cell bodies with nuclei
white matter tracts
primary afferent neurons conduct sensory impulses from the periphery into CNS
final efferent neuron conduct motor impulse from the CNS to the periphery. "lower motor neurons"
interneurons relatively short neurons interposed b/w afferent and efferent neurons. located entirely w/in CNS. exitatory or inhibitory
projection neurons located in CNS.send their axons longer distances before terminating.
projection neurons: cell body in spinal cord most project cranially to terminate in a neuronal population in the brain. ascending tract
projection neuron: nucleus or cortex of brain axon extends caudally to terminate in the brainstem or spinal cord on a LM, direct or via interneuron. descending tract. "upper motor neurons"
dorsal root sensory, afferent
ventral root motor, efferent
dorsal and ventral root combine to form spinal nerve
spinal nerve divides into dorsal, ventral, communicating branch
dorsal branch motor and sensory
ventral branch motor and sensory
communicating branch ramus communication. sympathetics only
afferent (sensory) conduct impulses toward CNS
efferent (motor) conduct impulses away from CNS
Somatic main body mass
visceral organs, blood vessels, smooth and cardiac muscle, glands
general somatic efferent GSE.multipolar neurons that supply the skeletal muscles of body. single neuron extends all the way from the CNS to muscle fibers involved
general visceral efferent GVE. multipolar neurons that supply smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands. Consist of 2 neuron chain b/w CNS and effector organ
in GVE nerves where is the first neuron cell body in the CNS. either brainstem or intermediolateral gray horn
in GVE nerves where is the second neuron cell body ganglion
General somatic afferent GSA. Pseudounipolar neurons that carry sensory information form the somatic body systems. skin musculoskeletal system. cell bodies in sensory ganglia.
general visceral afferent pseudounipolar neurons that carry sensory information from the visceral body systems. organs, blood vessels. cell bodies are located in sensory ganglia
special somatic afferent SSA. specialized neurons that carry visual and auditory information.
specialized visceral afferent SVA. specialized neurons that carry taste and smell sensations.
efferents control striated skeletal muscle
afferents control sensory information related to cutaneous sensation from muscles, tendons, and joints
somatic nervous system is composed of what efferents and afferents
autonomic nervous system controls involuntary visceral activity in order to maintain homeostasis or respond to stress. GVE, GVA.
GVE is divided into what sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic fight or flight. thoracolumbar. T1-L5
parasympathetic homeostasis, crainosacral. nuclei in brain stem, sacral spinal cord
first part of any nerve pathway lateral grey horn, ventral root, spinal nerve, ramus communicans, sympathetic trunk
clock analogy: 11-1 aortic arch
clock analogy: 1-2 pulmonary trunk
clock analogy: 2:20-3 left auricle
clock analogy: 2-5 right auricle
clock analogy: 5-9 right ventricle
clock analogy: 9-11 right atrium
branches of subclavian artery 1. verebral 2.costocervical 3.superficial cervical 4.internal thoracic
vertebral artery supplies branches to brain and spinal cord. and muscles adjacent to cervical vertebra
costcervical trunk supplies first few intercostal spaces dorsally and deep tissues at/near base of neck
superficial cervical artery supplies superficial muscles and tissues at/near base of neck
internal thoracic artery supplies intercostal arteries ventrally
branches of axillary artery 1.external thoracic artery 2.lateral thoracic artery 3.subsapular artery 4.cranial circumflex humeral artery
external thoracic artery supplies superficial pectoral M
lateral thoracic artery supplies deep pectoral muscle and other nearby muscle/tissue
subsapular artery is formed by thoracodorsal artery and caudal circumflex humeral artery
thoracodorsal artery supplies latissimus dorsi
caudal circumflex humeral artery supplies hooks laterally behind humeral joint to supply adjacent muscles and joint capsule
cranial circumflex humeral artery supplies courses cranially and passes under proximal end of biceps brachii. supplies adjacent muscles and joint capsule.
branches of brachial artery 1.collateral ulnar artery 2.superficial brachial artery 3.transverse cubital artery 4.common interosseus artery
the superficial brachial artery becomes what cranial superficial antebrachial artery
collateral ulnar artery supplies courses with ulnar nerve in distal 1/3 of brachium and adjacent tissues
superficial brachial artery supplies manus
transverse cubital artery supplies cubital joint and adjacent structures
common interosseus artery divides into what 1.cranial interosseus artery 2.caudal interosseus artery 3.ulnar artery
cranial interosseus artery supplies craniolateral muscles of antebrachium
caudal interosseus artery supplies manus
ulnar artery supplies courses caudally to joint ulnar nerve in antebrachium and supply adjacent muscles
branches of median artery 1.deep antebrachial artery 2.radial artery
deep antebrachial artery supplies caudomedial muscles of antebrachium.
radial artery supplies manus. main supply in cat
the median artery becomes superficial palmar arch
superficial palmar arch supplies manus. main supply in dog
superficial parmar arch becomes palmar common digital arteries
palmar common digital arteries supplies SDF and DDF
Superficial vessels/nerves in metacarpus 1.dorsal common digital 2.palmar common digitial
deep vessels/nerves in metacarpus 1.dorsal metacarpal 2.palmar metacarpal
vessels/nerves in digits dorsal/palmar axial/abaxial proper digital
superficial veins accessory cephalic, cephalic, median cubital, axillobrachial, omobrachial
brachial plexus formed by ventral branches of C6-T2 spinal nerves
nerves of brachial plexus that innervate extrinsic muscles of thoracic limb 1.cranial pectoral nerves 2.long thoracic nerve 3.thoracodorsal nerve 4.lateral thoracic nerve 5.caudal pectoral nerve
cranial pectoral nerves arise from cranial portion of plexus
cranial pectoral nerves innervate superficial pectoral muscles. descending and transverse
caudal pectoral nerves arise from corse caudoventrally to deep pectoral m.
caudal pectoral nerves innervate deep pectoral muscle
long thoracic nerve arise from passes caudally on lateral surface of thoracic part of serratus ventralis m.
long thoracic nerve innervates serratus ventralis m
thoracodorsal nerve arise from course with thoracodorsal vessels on medial surface of latissimus dorsi
thoracodorsal nerve innervates latissimus dorsi muscle
lateral thoracic nerve arise from common trunk with caudal pectoral nerve. courses caudally with lateral thoracic vessels, passing medial to axillary LN, b/w adjacent borders of the latissimus dorsi and deep pectoral m.
lateral thoracic nerve innervates cutaneus trunci muscle (preputial m).
suprascapular (c5), 6,7 lateral stabilizers of humeral jt. supraspinatus and infraspinatus
subscapular c6,7 medial stabilizer of humeral jt. subscapularis
musculocutaneous c6,7,8 flex cubital jt, cranial m. of brachium. biceps brachii, brachialis
axillary c6,7,8 flex humeral jt. deltoideus, teres major, teres minor
radial c7,8, T1, 2 extend cubital jt, caudal muscle of brachium. Triceps brachii. extend carpal and digital jt. cranial muscles of antebrachium. Extensor carpi radialis, Common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor
median C8, T1, 2. Ulnar C8, T1,2 flexors of carpal and digital jt. caudomedio muscles of antebrachium. flexor carpi radialis, SDF, DDF
suprascapular nerve arises from passes b/w supraspinatus and subscapularis m. on medial side. courses over scapular notch and continues across the neck of scapula. subject to injury
suprascapular nerve innervates lateral stabilizer of humeral jt. supraspinatus and infraspinatus m.
suprascapular nerve injury paralysis of the subscapular nerve results in atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus. "sweeney"
subscapular nerve arises from often doubles as it enters the subscapularis m. near humeral jt
subscapular nerve subscapularis m.
axillary nerve arises from dives laterally b/w subscapularis and teres major m.
axillary nerve innervates flexor muscles of humeral jt: Teres major/minor, deltoideus. Skin of lateral aspect of brachium, skin of cranial aspect of antebrachium
axillary nerve injury reduced ability to flex humeral jt
musculocutaneous nerve arises from courses distally b/w biceps brachii m. and brachial vessels
musculocutaneous nerve innervation cranial muscles of brachium: biceps brachii m., brachialis m. coracorachilis m. skin of medial antebrachium skin of palmar manus
musculocutaneous nerve injury markedly reduced ability to flex cubital jt
radial nerve arises from laterally and distally to teres major muscle. gives off muscular branches to extensors of cubital jt. courses craniolaterally b/w lateral head of triceps brachii and brachialis m.
radial nerve divides into superficial br, deep br.
radial nerve innervates caudal muscles of brachium, craniolateral muscles of antebrachium. skin over craniolateral aspect of antebrachium and dorsum of manus
high radial paralysis near brachial plexus. every action below affected. No extension of cubital jt, not able to bear wt. Amputation
low radial paralysis still extend cubital jt. no function below. proprioception affected.
loss of cutaneous sensation no motor decepts. no cutaneous sensation. no proprioception.
median nerve arises from courses distally with brachial and median artery
median nerve innervation caudomedial muscles of antebrachium. skin of palmar manus
ulnar nerve arises from. initially runs with median
ulnar nerve gives rise to caudal cutaneous antebrachial n. courses caudal to medial epicondyle of humerus.
ulnar nerve innervation caudomedial muscle of antebrachium. inerossei m. skin of caudal antebrachium, skin of palmar muscle, skin over later aspect of 5th digit (abaxial).
Created by: ejohnson17



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