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Parasitology

exam 5

QuestionAnswer
Nematode parasites of the respiratory system generally feed on what host cellular tissue.
What do most Nematode parasites of the respiratory system require for development to develop into infective stage in obligate intermediate host
Metastrongyloide common name Dog lung worm
Types of Metastrongyloide (dog lung worm) 1.filaroides hirthi 2.filaroides osleri
filaroides hirthi are parasitic in what tissue lung parenchyma. need to do surgical biopsy
filaroides hirthi pp 35 days. 5 wks
filaroides osleri are parasitic in what tissue nodules in the trachea and bronchi.
with filaroides osleri infection when can nodules be detected at 2 months
filaroides osleri pp 6-7 mo
Filaroides life cycle direct. tracheal migration by hepatic circulation
puppies are infected with filaroides via 1. coprophage 2.regurgitated stomach contents
filaroides infective stage to final host 1st larval stage
filaroides diagnosis fecal exam 1. baermann 2.zinc sulfate flotation
filaroides diagnostic characteristic kinked tail
Baermann is preferential for what recovery of live larvae in fecal samples and cultures. active migration of larvae out of fecal sample suspended in water. larvae concentrate in stem. wet mouth of larvae from bottom
filaroides clinical sig. asymptomatic. hard, dry cough. stim by cold air or exercise. possible obstruction of trachea with nodular formation in hyperinfections
filaroides pathology focal areas of inflammation and necrosis in parenchyma of lung lobe
filaroides treatment IVM preferred. prevention
Angiostrongylus vasorum common name french heartworm
Angiostrongylus vasorum found in what tissue right heart/ pulmonary artery
Angiostrongylus vasorum clinical sig pulmonary thombosis, clotting disorders, hemorrhage from deposited eggs and larvae
Angiostrongylus vasorum treatment Milbemycin. standard monthly heartworm prophylactic dose.
Angiostrongylus costaricensis clinical sig abdominal pain, fever, vomiting from worms living in mesenteric arteries
Angiostrongylus costaricensis is found where central and south America and Caribbean.
Angiostrongylus costaricensis spread in Florida associated with deaths in primate colonies. raccoons and opossums trapped near zoo also affected.
Angiostrongylus costaricensis spread in Africa Cuban mercenaries in Angola in 1980s
Angiostrongylus cantonensis clinical sig neurologic disease from larvae in meninges and inflammatory response. zoonotic
Angiostrongylus costaricensis in South Asia naturally occurring in rats. spread with distribution of giant African Snail.
Angiostrongylus costaricensis in North America spread Wharf rats from Asia.
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus common name cat lung worm
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus lifecycle indirect. 1st stage larvae passed in feces ingested by snail/slug
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus paratenic hosts mice/birds
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus pp 5-6 wks
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus found where terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts. eggs are laid in lung parenchyma
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus pathology "nests" of worms appear as small nodules with associated inflammatory response and focal necrosis
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus clinical sig most common lungworm in companion animal. coughing and dysorexia with moderate infection. polypnea in severe cases.
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus deaths are associated with what anethesia. shelter run spay neuter program
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus diagnosis fecal exam. Baermann, zinc sulfate
Aleurostrongylus abstrusus treatment FBZ. prevention
Troglostrongylus in Europe and Mediterranean Agent of feline respiratory disease
Troglostrongylus live where frontal sinuses, bronchi, trachea
Capillaria aerophilia are parasitic where bronchi
capillaria bohemi are parasitic where nasal sinuses
capillaria lifecycle direct. facultative indirect with earthworms
capillaria clinical signs in dogs/cats slight cough, sneezing. bronchopneumonia, rattling wheezy respiration, coughing, ADR
capillaria treatment macrocyclic lactone drug
Muellerius capillaris species infect goats and sheep
Muellerius capillaris are parasitic where embedded in respiratory tissue (parenchyma)
Muellerius capillaris lifecycle obligate indirect. short migration. 1st stage ingested by snails/slugs
Muellerius capillaris clinical sig in immunocompromised animals, coughing and rapid breathing, weight loss
Muellerius capillaris treatment macrocyclic lactone drugs
Dictyocaulus arnfeldi species infect horse and donkey
Dictyocaulus viviparus species infect cattle
Dictyocaulus filaria species infect sheep and goat
Dictyocaulus lifecycle direct. migrate to lungs via mesenteric lymphnodes and thoracic duct.
Dictyocaulus pp 4wks
Dictyocaulus clinical sig heavy infection occlude airway and obstruct airflow. increased respiration, harsh breathing, occasional crepitation. decreased eating/weight grain from increased stress to beath
Dictyocaulus host resistance comes from age, vigor, genetics, established infection, acquired immunity
Dictyocaulus epidemiology and optimal env conditions moderate temp, damp pasture
Dictyocaulus treatment macrocyclic lactones
Dirofilaria immitis common name canine heartworm
Dirofilaria immitis lives where pulmonary artery and vasculature of dog/cats/mammals
Dirofilaria immitis vermiform embryonic stages is called microfilaria. functional equivalent of egg. diagnostic for infection status
Dirofilaria immitis dog infected via mosquitoes harboring infective stage larvae.
Dirofilaria immitis larvae migration SQ tissue. colonize the pulmonary artery. become reproducing adult worms.
Dirofilaria immitis when do microglariae begin circulating 6mo PI.
Dirofilaria immitis lifecycle female mosquitoes feeding on microfilaremic dogs complete lifecycle, transmission to new host where the microgilariae then develop into infective heartworm
mosquito factors that affect heartworm transmission 1.vector efficiency 2.mosquito feeding activity 3.microfilarial activity in host 4.source and average # blood meals taken 5.night/day time temp variation
heart worm pathogenesis obstructive fibrosis, pulmonary endothelial damage, narrowing of vasculature bed w/ impaired blood flow. Reduced cardiac output
heart worm radiograph pulmonary hypertension induced compensatory hypertrophy w/ enlargement of the right side of the heart. enlarged, thickened and tortuous pulmonary artery. pulmonary infiltrates in caudal long lobes.
heart worm and kidney disease caused from obstruction of glomeruli. Microfilaria get stuck and block flow.
what bacteria is most commonly associated with heartworm Wolbachia pipientis. primary factor of disease process!
what species is the vector for wolbachia pipentis arthropods
how is wolbachia pipentis transmitted in utero from adult female worms to their microfilariae
Caval syndrome with heart worm large number of worms in right atrium into vena cava. obstructs blood flow and interferes with action of tricuspid valve. blood hemolyzed.
what are the clinical signs of caval syndrome jaundice, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria. fatal if not attended to properly
How does caval syndrome cause death 1. disseminated intravascular coagulation 2.massive action and consumption of proteins involved in coagulation 3.uncontrolled hemorrhaging
heart worm preventative med DEC and Oxibendazole. DEC is extremly microfilarcidal
how does heart worm preventative med work targets L3 a at molt to L4 stage
proheart 6 Moxidectin
heartgaurd ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate
sentinel milbemycin oxime, lefenuron
advantage muli moxidectin, imidacloprid
trifexis milbemycin oxime, spinosad
revolution seleamectin
ivermectin sensitivity is in animals w/ what mutant allele MDR1. collie breeds (white footed breeds). neurological effects
tests with poor Sensitivity are susceptible to what many false neg
poor specificity leads to excessive what false pos
predictive value probability that the test correctly discriminates b/w subjects w/ and w/o infection
three phases of heart worm treatment 1.pre adulticide clinical eval and treatment 2.adulticide treatment 3.post adulticide eval and treatment to eliminate microfilaria if necessary
pre adulticide clinical eval and treatment lungs relatively clear, clinical eval. removal of HW larvae and wolbachia. symptomatic or asymptomatic (Mild to severe).
adulticide treatment melarsomine dyhydrochloride to kill adult worms >100 days post infection in pulmonary artery. 2 or 3 injection protocols available.
post adulticide eval and treatment to eliminate microfilaria if necessary antigen testing to verify treatment effectiveness. microfilaria testing and treatment
primary goal of adulticidal treatment removal of adult worms in pulmonary artery/rt ventricle.
"slow kill" adulticial treatments original- ivermectin 24 months. ongoing HW inflammation new- ivermectin 6 months, doxycycline for 30 days. killed microfilaria by 12 wk moxy-doxy- doxycycline for 30 days. killed microfilaria by 21 days
concerns with adulticial treatment 1.post adulticidal risk of thromboembolisim 2.reduction of inflammatory response and complication
post adulticidal risk of thromboembolisim dead, dying, deteriorating worms in vascular circulation. natural part of disease clearing process. reduce exercise. use corticosteroids.
what is the only FDA approved adulticidal treatment Melarsomine
are microfilaria produced in cats with HW No. wolbachia still factor
HW in cats usually only 1 worm. ectopic sites, sudden death. worms may migrate to brain,
Heart worm associated respiratory disease (HARD) inflammation in pulmonary vasculatre. occlusion of airways. asthma-like. esoinophilia, basophilia
clinical signs of HARD dyspnea, coughing, vomiting, tachypnea, anorexia, lethargy
3 phases of HARD 1. w/ clinical signs 2. w/o clinical signs due to immunomodulatory activity by parasite 3. w/ clinical signs as parasite control of host response diminishes
management of feline HW No approved adulticidal regimen. manage symptomatically.monthly HW prophylaxis (ivermectin/ doxycycline)
HW in ferrets is caused by what disease Dirofilaria immitis. transmission like dogs and cats
How is HW in ferrets similar to dogs and cats dog: recovery of adult worms cat: low and tansient microfilaremia.
where is Capillaria plica found urinary tract
Capillaria plica is found in what sp dogs, foxes, wolves, coyotes, cats
where is Capillaria feliscati found urinary bladder
Capillaria feliscati is found in what sp cats
Capillaria sp. in urinary tract life cycle direct. obligate indirect w/ earthworm as IH.
Capillaria sp. in urinary tract PP 60 days
Capillaria sp. in urinary tract clinical signs re;atively harmless. occasional cystitis, difficulty w/ urination
Capillaria sp. in urinary tract treatment ivermectin. control w/ env hygine
Dioctophyma renale common name giant red kidney worm
Dioctophyma renale found where renal tissues of mammalian DH. pelvis of kidney.
Dioctophyma renale infect dog opportunistically. reservoir hosts: wild canidae, bear, mink, raccoon, otter
Dioctophyma renale life cycle obligate indirect. free living aquatics annelids (IH). crayfish, frog, fish (PH)
Dioctophyma renale route in body 1. infective larvae penetrate bowl 2. develop in peritoneum 3. penetrate kidney 4. dev to adults and repro.
Dioctophyma renale pp 138 days
Dioctophyma renale clinical signs without symptoms. parasitize rt kideny. renal function impaired in 1 kidney.
Dioctophyma renale disease is caused by what destruction of parenchyma. eventually only capsule remains
Dioctophyma renale what happens when they extend down ureter blockage/tissue destruction results in uraemia. kidney failure/death
Dioctophyma renale free in the peritoneum causes inflammation, adhesoins, peritonitis
Dracunculus sp common name Guinea worm. fiery serpent
Dracunculus sp found where subcutaneous tissue of North American Carnivores mammals. Limb.
Dracunculus sp infect pet dogs/cats opportunistically. Reservoir hosts are wild canidae, raccoon, otter, muskrats.
Draculculus insignis lifecycle free living aquatic copepods (IH). frogs (PH). accidental ingestion of IH. Predatory ingestion of PH. `
Draculculus insignis path in body ingested larvae migrate through intestinal wall, reach subcutaneous tissues (3wks), sexual maturity and repro (6-7 wks)
Draculculus insignis host reaction blister/ulcer at end of migration tunnel. female protrudes uterus when stim by contact w/ water
Draculculus mediensis sp infect humans residing in Africa. No effective treatment
Thelazia sp common name eye worm
Thelazia sp found where conjunctival and lacrimal sacs
Thelazia sp . sp infect dogs, cats, horses, cattle, sheep, people
Thelazia sp lifecycle obligate indirect. Flies (IH)- feed on lachrymal secretions. Transmission back to DH when return to feed
Thelazia sp clinical sig minimal. irriation and conjunctivities. increased tearing attracts flies
Thelazia sp treatment macrocyclic lactones. ivermectin, moxidectin
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis common name meningeal worm
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis sp infect white tail deer. non pathogenic
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis life cycle obligae indirect
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis in moose and elk significant morbidity and mortality
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis clinical sig lateral recumbency, dysorexia, ADR, ataxia, head tilt, circling, paraparesis w/ advanced disease
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis seasonal epi infective larvae acquired in summer. clinical signs appear during fall/ early winter. consistent w/ deep activity
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis in goats transient often get better
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis in camelids detection late in clinical course.
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis treatment FBZ. IVM (migrating larval stages)
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis prognosis 10-20% unable to stand. 75-80% able to stand w/o assistance
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis prevention limit contact with white tail deer. gravel/limestone barriers to snail/slug migration around fence lines, improve drainage
Paraelaphostrongylus tenuis prophylactic IVM treatment migrating larvae. may facilitate IVM resistance to Haemonchus
Created by: ejohnson17