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VET113 CH1 Vocab.

Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy The study of the form and structure of an animal body and its parts [Where are they located? What they look like?]
Physiology The study the functions of the animal body and it's parts [How parts work? What are the functions?]
Microscopic Anatomy The study of anatomic parts too small to be seen with the unaided eye [IE: cells and tissues]
Macroscopic Anatomy Study of body parts LARGE enough to be seen without magnification, "Gross Anatomy" [IE: lungs, leg, brain, muscle...]
Gross Anatomy The study of the body structures that are visible without additional aid to the naked eye, "Macroscopic Anatomy"
Skeletal System bones and joints
Integumentary System Skin, hair, nails, hooves
Nervous System Central nervous system and peripheral
Cardiovascular System heart and vessels
Respiratory System Lungs and airways
Sensory System Organs of general and special
Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Regional Anatomy Method of studying anatomy that examines all the component structures that make up each region of the body [IE: cells, tissues, organs, muscles, blood vessels, nerves]
Systemic Anatomy Method of studying anatomy that examines each system of the body as a separate topic [IE: skeletal and reproductive system]
Anatomic Plane of Reference 4 basic imaginary slices through an animal body oriented at right angles to each other, points of reference for directions and locations [Sagittal, Median, Transverse, Dorsal]
Sagittal Plane "MEDIAN PLANE", runs lengthwise, dividing the body into left and right parts [NOT ALWAYS EQUAL]
Transverse Plane Across the body that divides it into cranial [head-end] and caudal [tail-end] parts that are NOT equal
Dorsal Plane Divides the body into dorsal [upper] and ventral [lower] parts. NOT ALWAYS EQUAL
Frontal Plane Dorsal plane of humans
Medial Plane Median plane is a sagittal plane that runs down the center of the body and divides it into EQUAL left and right halves [midsagittal plane]
Cranial towards the HEAD of an animal
Cranium Head, the cranial portion of the dorsal body cavity that is formed from several skull bones. Houses and protects the brain.
Caudal towards the TAIL END of an animal
Xiphoid Process Last, most caudal sternebra
Inferior Toward the lower portion of a human body.
Superior Toward the head of a human
Rostral Toward the TIP of the NOSE. Positions and directions only on the head.
Anterior Towards the FRONT of a human body [directional term]
Posterior Toward the BACK of the human body [directional term]
Ventral Towards the BOTTOM surface; belly [directional term]
Dorsal Toward the TOP of an animal; backbone [directional term]
Lateral AWAY from the median plane; "center-line" of the body [directional term]
Medial TOWARD the median plane; "center-line" of the body [directional term]
Deep TOWARD the center of the body or a body part; internal [directional term]
Superficial TOWARD the surface of the body or a body part; external [directional term]
Tarsus The joint composed of the tarsal bones; hock/ankle
Proximal Directional term for extremities; portion or direction TOWARDS the body [IE "towards the top of the leg"]
Plantar The caudal surface of the hindlimb from the tarsus distally [bottom of the foot for humans]
Palmer The caudal surface of the forelimb from the carpus distally [palms of human hands]
Internal TOWARD the center of the body or a body part [alternative directional term for DEEP]
Distal Implies a postion or direction AWAY from the body proper [directional term ONLY FOR EXTREMITIES]
Carpus The joint composed of the carpal bones ["knee" of a horse/ "wrist" of a human]
External TOWARDS the surface of the body or body part [alternative directional term for SUPERFICIAL]
Orad [digestive system] direction of the mouth
Aborad [digestive system] direction away from the mouth [gastro system]
barrel trunk of body; formed by the rib cage and the abdomen
Brisket Area at the base of the neck between the front legs that covers the CRANIAL END of the sternum
Cannon Large metacarpal or metatarsal bone of hoofed animals
Fetlock [joint] Most proximal joint of equal digit; the joint between the large metacarpal or metatarsal and the proximal phalanx
Flank Lateral surface of the abdomen between the last rib and the hind legs.
Hock Ankle joint/tarsus; joins the tibiotarsus and the tarsometatarsus of birds
Knee [hoofed animal] Carpus of hoofed animal
Muzzle Rostral part of the face
Pastern Area of the proximal phalanx of hoofed animals
Poll Top of the head between the bases of ears [base of ears]
Stifle Joint between femur and tibia [femorotibial/femoropatellar], knee joint in humans
Tail head dorsal part of the base of the tail
Withers Area dorsal to the scapulas [bottom of mane]
Bilateral Symmetry The concept that the left and right halves of an animal's body are mirror images of each other [located on both sides of body]
Gastrointestinal Tract Part of the digestive tube composed of the stomach, small intestines, and large intestine [does not wander far from the median plane]
Dorsal Body Cavity The space in the skull and spinal column that contains the brain and spinal cord
Cranial Cavity Spherical, cavity in skull, cranium
Spinal Cavity Long narrow, runs down the spine, spinal canal
Spinal Canal long, flexible, caudal portion of the dorsal body cavity formed by the adjacent arches of the vertebral of the spine. [houses and protects the spinal canal]
Radial Symmetry Axis of symmetry is around a central point of the body.
Ventral Body Cavity Large space divided by thin, sheet-like, diaphragm muscle into cranial thoracic cavity [CHEST] and caudal abdominal cavity {BELLY]
Viscera Soft, internal organs enclosed within a body cavity [ventral body cavity]
Thorax Thoracic, or chest, cavity
Pleura Thin membrane in the thoracic cavity that covers the thoracic organs [visceral layer of pleura] and lines the thoracic cavity [parietal layer of pleura]. Potential space between the 2 layers contains a small amount of lubricating fluid.
Visceral Layer Layer of pleura or peritoneum that lies directly on the surface of organs in the thorax or abdomen
Parietal Layer Layer of pleura or peritoneum that lines the thorax or abdomen, respectively. [lines the cavity as a whole]
Inflammation 1st step in the healing process when the body is injured. [clean up]
Pleuritis/pleurisy [Peritonitis] pleura surface becomes thickened and inflamed.
Abdominal cavity digestive, urinary, reproductive organs.
Cells Basic functional units of animal
Levels of Organization 1. Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Systems
Intestinal lining function absorbs nutrients
Red blood cell function carries oxygen to body
Nerve Cell Function organizing and controlling body functions
Tissue Group of cells that are similar in structure and perform the same function [MACROSCOPIC] 1. Epithelial 2. Connective 3. Nervous 4. Muscle
Myocytes Muscle cells
Histology Branch of anatomy that deals with micro structure and composition of tissues
Epithelial Tissue A collection of tissues that are made up of layers of cells that line and cover body surfaces. Cells may be in single layers or multilayered and can regenerate quickly.
Connective Tissue Tissue made up of cells and extra-cellular substances that connect and support cells and other tissues. [LIVING AND NON-LIVING] Binds cells and structures together and supports the body
Adipose Fat [connective tissue]
Muscle Tissue Collections of tissues that support the body and enable it to move, thermoregulate, and transport materials. Controlled voluntarily VS. Involuntarily MOVES BODY
Skeletal Muscle Multinucleated, striated, voluntary muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal MUSCLE TISSUE
Smooth Muscle Nonstriated, involuntary, 1 nucleus per cell; found in soft internal organs and structures MUSCLE TISSUE IE: digestive tract and bladder
Cardiac Muscle Striated, involuntary muscle that is found exclusively in the heart MUSCLE TISSUE
Nervous Tissue Collection of tissues that collect, process, and convey information [sends info to the brain] Tells the body how to react to changing conditions.
Organ A group of tissues that work together for common purposes
System Groups of organs that are involved in a common set of an activity MOST COMPLEX LEVEL
Digestive System Collection of organs that take in, digest, and absorb food for use by the body to maintain health and normal functions
disease Results when structures or functions of the body become abnormal
Health A state of normal anatomy and physiology that allows the body to function normally INTERRELATED
Homeostasis MAINTENANCE OF BALANCE IN BODY State of equilibrium maintained in the body by feedback and regulatory process in response to internal and external changes Monitor critical levels and functions in the body and stimulate corrective actions
Equilibrium Sense that helps an animal maintain it's balance by keeping track of the position and movement of its head. HOMEOSTASIS
Fight or Flight System Whole body response resulting from an animal feeding threatened that prepares the body for intense physical activity. Combination of direct sympathetic nerve stimulation and release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream
Created by: jsaucedo



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