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2VCOMPharmacology 1


o Examples of antimicrobials  Natural: Penicillin, cephalosporin C  Synthetic: Sulfamethoazole, Trimethoprim, Quinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin
• Antimicrobial spectrum fall into what categories Narrow, extended, broad
• MIC stands for what? Minimal inhibitory concentration
• Tests for MIC are what two? Etest and Disk diffusion
• What are the types of microbial resistance? o Innate resistance:  Microbe lacks drug target of the chemotherapeutic agent. o Acquired resistance:  Microbe that has undergone a change.  Change compensates for the presence of the drug.
•How do bacteria acquire resistance? o Mutation o Transfer
• Why does drug fail to reach its target? o Can’t penetrate cell wall/membrane due to change in structure or because of drug efflux pumps o Metabolic rxns inactivate drug o Mutations in target preclude binding of drug to target
• Explain the reasons for antibiotic resistance in patients Prescribing an insufficient duration, an insufficient dose, an antibiotic that is only o Prescribing when not needed. o Stopping antibiotic use as soon as symptoms disappear, Taking antibiotics without physicians supervision.
• What are the targets of antibacterial drugs? o Replication, metabolism, protein production, & certain structures i.e cell wall
• Name some cell wall inhibitors The following antibiotics o b-lactam  Penicillins (and their derivatives).  Cephalosporins (four generations).  Monobactams.  Carbapenem.  (b-lactamase inhibitors). o Others  Bacitracin.  Fosfomycin.  Vancomycin
• Name the Narrow spectrum penicillins  Penicillin G  Penicillin V
o Name the Penicillinase resistant penicillins  Nafcillin
o Name the Extended spectrum penicillins:
o Name the b-lactamase inhibitors: Competitive inhibition of b-lactamase: Aren’t antibiotics  Clavulanate  Sulbactam
Created by: VCOM2013