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exam 3

bone shapes Long short irregular flat sesmoid
bone structure compact spongy
bone location axial appendicular heterotopic
Long bones found only in limbs, act as levers
short bones somewhat equidimensional (cuboidal). found only in limbs. used for complex movement
flat bones sig reduced in one dimension
pneumatic bones excavated to contain air-filled space (sinuses).
irregular bones characterized by jutting processes
sesmoid bone seed shaped. found inbedded in tendon to protect tendon
axial bones bones of skulls, vert column, ribs, sternum
Appendicular bones bones of limbs
Heterotopic (splanchnic) bones bones in normal but unusual location. ex os penis of dog, os cordis of ox, os rostrale of pig
compact bone dense or cortical bone
spongy bone aka traecular or cancellous bone.
where is spongy bone located in long bones extremities
where is spongy bone located in short and irregular bones internal substance
where is spongy bone located in flat bones interposed b/w the 2 compact layers
Bone marrow found within the medullary cavity of long bones and within the inersticles of spongy bone
Red marrow hematopoietic marrow. blood producing
yellow marrow fatty marrow
primary center of ossification diaphysis, before birth
secondary center of ossification epiphysis, after birth
Bone blood supply nutrient artery that passes through the nutrient foramen
clinical sig of nutrient foramen 1. may resemble an oblique fracture on radiographs 2. signs of panosteitis are first detected.
Joint classification 1. fibrous joints 2. cartilaginous joints 3. synovial joints
fibrous joints hardly move. skeletal components united by fibrous connective tissue.
fibrous joints subtypes 1. sutures 2.gomphoses 3.syndesmoses
sutures joints b/w the flat bones of the skull. remnants of the embryonic membrane.
why are sutures important in young animals 1. allow deformation of skull during parturition 2.allow growth of skull
gomphoses dental implantations. between roots of teeth and alveoli. formed by peridontal ligament
syndesmosis all other fibrous joints. ex: fibrous connection b/w metacarpal and metatarsal bones
cartilaginous joints permit only limited movement such as compression or stretching.
cartilage joints subtypes 1. hyaline cartilage 2. fibrocartilaginous
hyaline cartilage joints Synchondroses. most are temporary and ossify with age.
ex of hyaline cartilage joint that ossify with age physes of growing long bones.
ex of hyaline cartilage joint that do not ossify with age costochondral junctions
Fibrocartilaginous joints symphyses. may ossify with age.
Fibrocartilaginous joints examples pelvic symphysis, mandibular symphysis, intervertevral discs
synovial joints freely movable. components are not directly joined to one another at contact surfaces. separated by synovial fluid.
Features of synovial joints 1. Joint cavity 2. joint capsule 3. articular cartilage
Layers of joint capsule Fibrous layer (outer) Synovial membrane (inner)
ligament a band or cord of connective tissue uniting bone to bone
Tendon a band or cord of connective tissue uniting bone to muscle
Ligament general function stabilize and unite skeletal components
what are the two main categories of ligaments 1. extracapsular 2. intracapsular
extracapsular outside the confines of the fibrous layer of the joint capsule
intracapsular within the confines of the fibrous layer of the joint capsule
collateral ligaments extracapsular. found at most appendicular synovial joints.
collateral ligament function located medially and laterally. prevent abduction/adduction, while allowing flexion and extension.
Menisci/ articular discs fibrocartilaginous structures located b/w articular surfaces.
Menisci/ articular discs function provide stabilization, help distribute synovial fluid, and/or improve shock absorption
where are the menisci found at the jenual joints
where are the articular discs found in the temporomandibular joints
thoracic limb flexor surfaces of all synovial joints located caudally (or palmarly) except for cubital joint that is cranial
humeral joint capable of movent in any direction. primary focus on flexion/ extension/
How is the humeral joint stabilized lacks collateral ligaments so stabilized by adjacent muscles
cubital joint composite joint formed by humeral condyle, head of radius, trochlear notch of ulna. very stable!
how is the cubital joint stabilized collateral ligaments
pelvic limb flexor surfaces of all synovial joints located caudally (plantarly) except the coxal joint that is cranial and tarsal joints that are dorsal
coxal joint great range of movement b/c ball and socket construction. lacks collateral ligaments
How is the coxal joint stabilized with the ligaments of the femoral head and the transverse acetabular ligament
ligament of femoral head intracapsular. anchors femoral head to acetabulum
transverse acetabular ligament bridges notch interrupting medial wall of acetaulum. does not attach to femur
genual joint articulation points 1.femoropatellar articulation 2. tibiofibular articulation 3. femorotibial articulation
Features of the femorotibial articulation of the genual joint 2 menisci and 10 ligaments ( 4 that unite the femur and tibia/fibula, 6 that anchor the menisci)
5 basic radiographic opacities (radiolucent to radiopaque) gas, fat, soft tissue/fluid, mineral/bone, metal
smooth muscle involuntary. found in walls of hollow organs and blood vessels, spleen, eye, hair follicles, glands
fleshy muscle attach more or less direct attachment to the periosteum
aponeurosis muscle attach sheet like attachment
synovial bursae a bag of synovial fluid that protects a tendon as it passes over a point of friction.
tendon sheath protect tendons where a greater portion of the circumference is vulnerale.
what are the layers of a tendon sheath 1. visceral layer 2. mesotendon 3. parietal layer
Fascia connective tissue that binds the organs of the body together
superficial fascia loose CT connecting the dermis of the skin to deeper structures. where you give subQ fluids
what does superficial fascia contain cutaneous muscle, glands, fat, vessels, etc
deep fascia stronger and denser layer that more closely invests muscles or groups of muscles.
Subserous fascia glue that supports serous membranes lining body cavities
What are the regional thickenings of deep fascia that bind tendons in place at certain joints called? Retinacula and annular ligaments
Created by: ejohnson17



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