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Foetal development

304.4 Vet nursing Stages of foetal development and hormonal controls

2 ways the reproductive cycle of patients can be controlled Surgical and medical
Correct name for the surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus Ovariohysterectomy
6 advantages of spaying No unwanted litters, No pyometra, Less likely to run away, Reduce risk of cancer, No seasons, No false pregnancies
5 disadvantages of spaying Bladder problems, Pain/discomfort, No hormones if done too early, Weight gain, Changes in coat colour and texture after clip
What can be used to postpone oestrus in queens and bitches? Progestogen
What are progestogens? Synthetic progesterone which mimics pregnancy hormones
Disadvantage of using progestogens? Can increase the risk of pyometra
What can be used to induce oestrus in bitches? Prolactin inhibitors (galastop)
What else can galastop be used for? Stop false pregnancies
Technical term for unwanted pregnancies? Misalliance
What can be used to terminate unwanted pregnancies? Progesterone receptor antagonists (Alizin) or therapy using oestrogen (Mesalin)
What does seasonally polyoestrus mean? Come into season many times at only one time of year
Why might cats be seasonally polyoestrus? So the kittens can be born when the weather starts to get warmer and there is plenty of food.
What causes seasonally polyoestrus animals to start their oestrus cycle Increasing photoperiod and temperature
How frequently do cats come into season during the spring and summer every 3 weeks
Time between fertilisation and birth Gestation period
How long is the gestation period in dogs and cats 58-63/64 days
How long is the gestation period in rabbits 31-33 days
Male or female reproductive cell gamete
fertilised egg cell zygote
Product of conception at any stage of development Conceptus
What age is the conceptus called an embryo? Conception to 35 days
What age is the conceptus called an foetus? 36 days to birth
What age is the conceptus called an neonate? birth to 2 weeks
4 steps of ovulation Follicle matures, Follicle ruptures, Corpus luteum formation, Corpus luteum degrades (no pregnancy)
What is an induced ovulator? Ovulation is not spontaneous but is induced by coitus
What hormone causes the follicle to mature? Follicle stimulating hormone
What hormone causes the follicle to rupture? Leutenising hormone
What hormone maintains the pregnancy? Progesterone
What structure releases progesterone in the ovary? Corpus luteum
At what stage does the bitch drip blood from the vulva? Pre-oestrus (mature follicle)
At what stage is the bitch "on heat"? When the follicle ruptures
Inner layer of the ovum Zona pellucida
What is the zona pellucida made from? Glycoprotein
Outer layer of the ovum corona radiata
What is the corona radiata made from? small follicular cells
Where are the ova fertilised? Oviduct
Other name for the oviduct? Fallopian tube
How long can sperm last in the fallopian tube? 7 days
How long after fertilisation does implantation occur in dogs? 14-20 days
How long after fertilisation does implantation occur in cats? 11-16 days
Which animals have diffuse placentas? Horses and pigs
Which animals have cotyledonary placentas? Ruminanats
Which animals have zonary placentas? Cats, dogs, most carnivores and elephants
Which animals have discoid placentas? Primates and rodents
Where is relaxin produced during pregnancy? Placenta
Created by: 18000305



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