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Muscular system

302.3 Vet nursing Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
3 types of muscle in the body? skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle
what is skeletal muscle? also called striated muscle. allows the skeleton to move. under voluntary control.
what is smooth muscle? also called non-striated muscle. found in the guts, uterus, bladder, blood vessels, airways and eyes. under involuntary control
what is cardiac muscle? involuntary striated muscle. found in the heart. never gets tired.
what is the name of a muscle cell? muscle fibre
describe muscle fibres very large, multi-nucleated and up to several millimetres in length
what are muscle fibres made from? long strands of contractile proteins called myofibrils
myofibrils are divided into sections called what? sacromeres
each sacromere is made from 2 proteins called? myosin (thick) actin (thin)
The process of muscle contraction requires what as a source of energy? ATP
What does ATP stand for? Adenosinetriphosphate
What ion is essential to the process of muscle contraction? Calcium
What is the origin of a muscle? Proximal attachment to the skeleton
What is the belly of a muscle? Main part of the muscle
What is the insertion of a muscle? Distal attachment to the skeleton
What is the tendon of a muscle? Fibrous connective tissue connecting muscle to bone
What is the bursa of a muscle? Protective cushion between tendon and bone. Fluid filled sac.
What is the synovial sheath of a muscle? Connective tissue layer which surrounds the tendon
What is an aponeurosis of a muscle? A sheet of fibrous tissue that takes the place of a tendon in flat muscles (such as abdomen)
What is a sphincter muscle? A circular ring of muscles
3 muscles of mastication? Temporalis, Masseter, Digastricus
3 types of eye muscle? Rectus, oblique and retractor bulbi muscles
How many rectus muscles in the eye and what are they for? 4, for moving eye left, right, up and down
How many oblique muscles in the eye and what are they for? 2, for rotating eye clockwise and counter-clockwise
Where is the retractor bulbi in the eye and what is it for? Around optic nerve at the back of the eye, for pulling the eye deeper into the skull
2 muscles of the vertebral column Epaxial (above) and Hypaxial (below) muscles
2 muscles of the thorax? internal intercostal and external intercostal
3 openings in the diaphragm? aortic hiatus, oesophageal hiatus, caval foramen
4 muscles of the abdominal wall? External abdominal oblique, Internal abdominal oblique, Transverse abdominis, Rectus abdominis
What is the linea alba? White line down the middle of the abdomen where all the aponeuroses of the lateral abdominal muscles meet
What is the Trapezius muscle and what does it do? Triangular shaped muscle that draws the leg forward
What is the Latissmus dorsi muscle and what does it do? Large fan shaped muscle that retracts the forelimb
What is the Brachiocephalicus muscle and what does it do? Runs from the base of the skull to the humerus. Flexes neck and protracts the limb
What is the Supraspinatus muscle and what does it do? Fills the supraspinous fossa of the scapula. Extends shoulder joint
What is the Infraspinatus muscle and what does it do? Fills the infraspinous fossa of the scapula. Flexes the shoulder joint
What is the Triceps brachii muscle and what does it do? Four headed muscle behind the humerus. Extends elbow joint
What is the Biceps brachii muscle and what does it do? Flexes the elbow joint.
What is the Brachialis muscle and what does it do? Front of the humerus. Flexes elbow joint.
What are the Gluteal muscles and what do they do? Superficial, deep and middle gluteals for the curve of the rump. Extend hip joint
What are the Hamstring muscles and what do they do? Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus which form the caudal thigh. Extend hip and flex stifle joint.
What is the Quadriceps femoris muscle and what does it do? Large muscle of cranial thigh. Extends stifle joint. Tendon contains patella
What is the Gastrocnemius muscle and what does it do? Muscle of lower hind-limb. Attached to calcaneus of hock. Extends hock and flexes stifle
What is the Achilles tendon and what does it do? Large strong tendon along back of the leg. Made from superficial digital flexor, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris and semitendinosus.
What are the limbs of the horse adapted for? Speed
There is little or no what below the knee and hock? Muscle
What is the purpose of a tendon? Attach muscle to bone
4 important tendons in the horses lower leg? Deep digital flexor, Superficial digital flexor, Common digital extensor, Lateral digital extensor
Do horses sleep standing up or lying down? Standing up
What is the "stay apparatus" in a horse? Allows them to lock their legs and stand still for a long time
Why have horses developed a stay apparatus? to be able to flee from predators at short notice
Created by: 18000305