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When organ did not develop during embryogenesis and is absent or rudimentary; examples are one kidney, one testes/ovary, tail or limb Aplasia
Complete absence of structure Aplasia
May be rudimentary structure present Aplasia
Best examples in reproductive organs Aplasia
Absence or closure of opening Usually of hollow visceral organ or duct Atresia
Failure of organ to obtain full size Hypoplasia
Implies decrease function Hypoplasia
Usually noticed in young animals Hypoplasia
Usually due to events late in developing fetus/neonate Hypoplasia
Viral infection during pregnancy Hypoplasia
due to feline panleukopenia virus infection Cerebellar hypoplasia
due to BVD infection of dam Cerebellar hypoplasia
due to Blue Tongue Virus of dam Cerebellar hypoplasia
Canine distemper virus infection Enamel hypoplasia
GeneticRarely known precise genetic defect Hypoplasia
Suspected due to familial occurrence Familial renal hypoplasia in dogs
Sporadic in calves Pancreatic hypoplasia
(also seen in dogs, but usually thought to be atrophy and not hypoplasia.) Pancreatic hypoplasia
Rudimentary structure would lack any normal organ architecture aplasia
would show recognizable normal architecture although some abnormalities may be present. hypoplasia
Decrease in tissue mass AFTER achieving normal growth Atrophy
Due to decreased cell number and/or decreased cell size Atrophy
Implies decrease function Atrophy
Can be physiologic Atrophy
Cachexia Nutritional atrophy
Lipocytes are atrophic Serous atrophy of fat
Interstitial edema Serous atrophy of fat
Gray, gelatinous appearance grossly Serous atrophy of fat
Due to anorexia, starvation, cachexia Serous atrophy of fat
due to chronic inflammation atrophy
It is uptake and intracellular degradation of damaged or effete organelle Autophogocytosis
damaged organnelles are enveloped by cell membrane to form autophagosomes
is common reaction of sublethaly injured cells undergoing physiologic regression (glands) autophagy
may cause decrease in organnelle of a cell Autophagocytosis
Increase tissue size due to increase in individual cellular size Hypertrophy
Pure form only seen in tissues composed of cells that do not readily divide…striated muscle Hypertrophy
Can occur with hyperplasia Hypertrophy
Cardiac enlargement due to hypertension or aortic valve disease Hypertrophy
Increased demand to striated muscle Hypertrophy
after removal of one kidney Renal hypertrophy
corticosteroids hepatocyte hypertrophy
muscle hypertrophy Androgens
mammary gland hypertrophy Estrogens
Much more common than hyhpertrophy Hyperplasia
Increase in organ/tissue size due to increase in cell number Hyperplasia
May be associated with increase in function Hyperplasia
A reversible change Hyperplasia
gravid uterus; lactating cow physiologic hyperplasia hormonal
Remaining tissue enlarges after part removed or non-functional physiologic hyperplasia compensatory
Hormone-associated Thus, hormones can cause both hypertrophy and hyperplasia Viral-associated Chronic irritation due to a number of agents Infectious and noninfectious Pathologic hyperplasia causes
hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells goiter
thyroid hyperplasia DD Thyroid adenoma
A form found especially in dogs Chronic polypoid cystitis
Chronic polypoid cystitis chronic irritation (UTI, uroliths) leading to mucosal hyperplasia
Warts in cattle Viral-associated
Hepatic nodular hyperplasia DD Metastatic tumor
Transformation of one adult cell type to another adult cell type-potentially reversible Metaplasia
Usually in cells of epithelium and connective tissue Metaplasia
Epithelial cells-columnar or cuboidal change to stratified squamous cells Metaplasia
Connective tissue cells change to cartilage and cartilage to bone Metaplasia
is beneficial but mostly it develops to neoplastic changes metaplasia
Chronic irritation leading to Squamous metaplasia
Osseous metaplasia of the lung Equine
Abnormal development Dysplasia
Term is mostly used for developmental defects in eyes, skin, brain, skeletal system Dysplasia
Examples are 'dysplastic spermatozoa, fibrous dysplasia of bone Dysplasia
a variety of progressive degenerating and atrophic changes, resulting from defective nutrition, a few refers to be inherited. A few reported in animals Dystrophy
rickets and osteomalacia Dystrophy
inherited Dystrophy Muscular dystrophies
usually in sheep and dogs Neuroaxonal dystrophies
Bone resorption and replacement with fibrous tissue renal fibrous osteodystrophy (canine)
literally means new growth Neoplasia
grow without control of normal laws of growth Neoplasia
have no orderly structural arrangement Neoplasia
Serve no useful function Neoplasia
resemble to cells from which arose Neoplasia
have no clear etiology Neoplasia
any kind of swelling, but now the term is used to neoplastic swelling tumor
all do not exhibit swellings tumors
In latin means ‘crab’ and carcinoma in Greek; Karkinos means ‘crab’. Grossly a few infiltrating tumors somewhat looks like a‘crab Cancer
Cancer Malignant Tumor
Ability to invade locally and destroyAbility to spread Malignant
study of TUMORS Oncology
Nomenclature of tumors Classified on two bases
two bases of tumor classification Histogenesis- tissue or cell type, Behavior (growth character, invasion/infiltration, metastasis, clinical effects)
carry a suffix -oma Benign
a suffix- carcinoma for epithelial tissue Malignant
a suffix-sarcoma for mesenchymal tissue Malignant
a suffix-sarcoma for mesenchymal tissue
a suffix- carcinoma for epithelial tissue
glandular, squamous, transitional Types of epithelium and associated malignancies
mammary gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma glandular
mammary gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma
squamous skin,esophagus papilloma/squamous cell carci
transitional urinary bladder papilloma/ transitional cell carci
Carcinoma may develop from epithelium derived from any germ layer
sweat gland carcinoma Ectoderm
intestinal carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma Endoderm
renal carcinoma Mesoderm
More than one neoplastic cell type from one or more germ layers Mixed tumors
arises from cells normally found in the tissue Mixed tumors
Examples: Mixed mammary gland tumor, mixed salivary gland tumor; composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells Mixed tumors
Can be benign or malignant Mixed tumors
May contain bone and cartilage in addition to neoplastic epithelial cells, but if present ,the bone and cartilage are a result of metaplasia of myoepithelial cells and are not neoplastic cells mixed tumor
Neoplastic tissue type present are foreign to the tissue in which they arise Teratomas
Multiple neoplastic tissues from more than one germ layer Teratomas
Can be benign or malignant Teratomas
When tumor cells not resemble to parent tissue Anaplasia
have wide spectrum of differentiation Malignant tumors
poorly differentiated Anaplastic
Degree of differentiation CAN indicate degree of malignancy
Anaplastic carcinoma Of thyroid bizarre giant, multinucleated cells
A disorganized mass growing from the nerve tissue usually after trauma or amputation (docking in dogs, neurectomy surgery in horses). Neuroma
Hyperplastic mass of tissue as a result of anomalous development Hamartoma
It is not tumor but resembles tumor Hamartoma
It is usually seen in ovary, lung and skin. Hamartoma
benign differentiation good
malignant differentiation variable
benign loss of polarity not much
malignant loss of polarity more
benign pleomorphism- cell not much
malignant pleomorphism- cell extreme
benign pleomorphism-nuclei not much
malignat pleomorphism-nuclei extreme
exceptions to mitotic figures bone marrow, hyperplastic tissue
slow with few exceptions benign Growth rate
expansion space occupying lesion benign Growth type
never occurs benign Metastasis
dangerous benign Clinical effects
variable often rapid malignant Growth rate
infiltration,invasion malignant Growth type
common malignant Metastasis
dangerous malignant Clinical effects
Often corresponds to degree of differentiation Growth Rate
tend to grow more rapidly poorly differentiated tumors
can grow rapidly at times Papilloma of mouth of dog
poorly differentiated tumors tend to grow more rapidly exceptions Papilloma of mouth of dog can grow rapidly at times and Hormone dependent mammary tumors in bitch
Often encapsulated, Often freely movable benign
Frequently invade locally, Potential for metastasize malignant
is spread and growth of tumor in distant organ away from original site Metastasis
Metastasis Such growth is also called secondary tumor
cell detachment,invasion of lymphatic and/or blood vessels,arrest,penetration,invasion, and growth Stages in metastatic process
Blood vascular system (usually mesenchymal tumors),Lymphatic system (usually epithelial tumors),Body cavities (transcoelomic, implantation),Along the epithelium,Along the duct system Metastasis can be through
self limiting canine histiocytoma
are malignant but do not metastasize and have local invasiveness and cause death. intermediate- basal cell carcinoma, sweat gland and sebaceous gland tumors
invasion through serous membrane Abdomen and thorax
Spread of mammary carcinoma to the skin of inguinal region Along epithelium
Mammary gland tumors,Testicular tumors,Renal pelvic tumors Along duct system
tumor Size no indication of prognosis
may be firm – if necrotic, may be soft Scirrhous tumor
Tumor color may resemble parent tissue
Tumor May diffusely infiltrate an organ and cause enlargement of organ example Splenic lymphosarcoma
Hemangiosarcoma mets in brain.Differential Malignant melanoma
Sheet of cells,Nests of cells,Acinar arrangement,Trabecular arrangement,Stroma Microscopic appearance of tumors
Non- neoplastic connective tissue and blood vessels,Critical for tumor growth Stroma,Supporting tissue,Host derived
The neoplastic cells Parenchyma
New blood vessel formation Angiogenesis
Required for growth beyond 1-2 mm Angiogenesis
Required for metastasis Angiogenesis
Tumor cells stimulate Angiogenesis
Secrete angio and anti-angiogenic factors Tumor cells
Induce angiogenic factor secretion from other cells Tumor cells
Hypoxia cause release of angiogenic factors Tumor cells
interfere with angiogenesis Glucocorticocoids
Endothelial cells of tumor blood vessels Supply nutrients,Secrete growth factors
occurs when tumor outgrow blood supply Necrosis in tumor
seen in highly malignant tumors Hemorrhages
Fibrous capsule common in benign tumors
can provoke fibroplasia tumor cells
Differentiate from fibromas, fibrosarcomas and other connective tissue tumors fibroplasia
Host defense against tumor Nonspecific Mechanism,Specific Mechanisms
Inflammatory response with lysis and phagocytosis. Nonspecific Mechanism
Antigens expressed on the surface of neoplastic cells can evoke anti-tumor antibodies and anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes Tumor antigens
Tumor antigens Specific Mechanisms
Some tumor antigens used for diagnostic purpose
Often neoplastic cells do not have surface molecules that differentiate them from self
Prolonged exposure to tumor antigens induce tolerance
Reduced or loss of expression of MHC
Tumor antigens may bind and deplete all anti-tumor antibody in circulation
may stimulate apoptosis in T lymphocytes Tumor cells
Promote cell growth protooncogenes
are derived from protooncogenes whose expression is deregulated Oncogenes
Inhibit cell growth Cancer suppressor genes
The cancer suppressor genes seem to encode nuclear proteins that suppress cell proliferation by preventing the entry of cells into growth cycle.
Loss or inactivation of these proteins- releases growth restraints and favors malignant transformation. nuclear proteins
Loss of function leading to increased cell life span with increased opportunity to acquire mutation Proteins that regulate apoptosis
in older animals papilloma
in older dogs perianal gland tumors
in younger dogs oral papillomatosis
in older dogs and horses melanoma
in young horses teratoma
in younger dogs fibrosarcoma and histiocytoma
mostly in middle aged bitches mammary tumor
induce cancer in rabbits using coal tar. Yamagiwa and Ichikawa
report first cancer induction by pure chemicals 1932 cook and others
reports scrotal cancer (Pott`s tumor) in chimney sweeps. 1775 Percival Pott
Not carcinogenic alone Cancer promoters
May stabilize DNA damage Cancer promoters
May enhance cell proliferation Cancer promoters
Ex: chronic inflammation Cancer promoters
Initiators by inducing DNA damageRequire a promoter to cause cancer Two-stage theory
react with DNA, RNA, proteins Reactive electrophiles
Some cancer drugs Directly acting
Require enzymatic conversion in cell Indirectly acting: (most
Examples:Polycyclic hydrocarbons (cigarettes)Aflatoxin B1,Asbestos Indirectly acting
Pinna, eye lids, planum nasale SCC with ulceration (cat)
Squamous cell carcinoma tonsil of dog,tongue of cat,esophagus of cat Pollution’ associated tumors in small animals
UV light associated skin tumors Eyelid and cornea ox, horse, sheep
UV light associated skin tumors Vulva cow
UV light associated skin tumors muzzle dog and sheep
UV light associated skin tumors Ear cat and sheep
UV light associated skin tumors ventral abdomen dog
UV light associated skin tumors in animals Tumors are generally squamous cell carcinoma but also hemangioma and hemangisarcoma
Mammals, birds, reptiles Retroviruses
Some carry viral oncogenes (v-onc) acutely transforming retroviruses: example BLV, FeLV
Some carry genes coding for cancer promoters, enhancers or proteins that activate other genes (regulators) example slowly transforming retroviruses HIV, FIV, FeSV
benign squamous papillomas Warts
Usually young animals Warts
Regress spontaneously Warts
Papillomaviruses Warts
considered species- specific Papillomaviruses
Papillomaviruses considered species- specific. However, when the bovine papillomavirus infects horses can cause a fibroma called equine sarcoid
Associated with gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma in humans Helicobacter pylori
Associated with gastric carcinoma in ferrets Helicobacter mustelae
May colonize stomachs of dogs/cats Helicobacter spp.
+/- clinical signs of gastritis Helicobacter spp.
Esophageal nematode of dogs Spirocerca lupi
Granulomas Spirocerca lupi
Dysphagia Spirocerca lupi
Rarely esophageal fibrosarcoma or esophageal osteosarcoma Spirocerca lupi
Primary change is in DNA of the cell,All known carcinogens act upon DNA,The change in DNA results to non-lethal genetic damage somatic mutation),The somatic mutation is in a gene controlling cell division Summary of carcinogenesis
may determine clinical signs, which are produced by both primary and secondary tumors Location
May produce androgens as well as estrogens Bovine: granulosa cell tumor ….cystic
Sertoli cell tumors dogs
3rd most common testicular tumor in the dog. Usually in Un-desended testicle Sertoli cell tumors
~1/3 produce estrogen… feminization of the male dog Sertoli cell tumor testicular tumor
are defined as systemic complications of neoplasia that are remote from the primary tumor Paraneoplastic syndromes
Examples of paraneoplastic syndromes in Veterinary Medicine are associated with the production of native hormone from the cells that normally produce that hormone or from the 'ectopic 'production of a hormone-like peptide by tumor cells that normally do not produce this hormone
may serve as diagnostic aid or as specific tumor markers for treatment and response Paraneoplastic syndromes
Insulinoma in dogs; rare in cats
Clinical signs: typical CNS dysfunction-lethargy, ataxia, polydipsia, seizers and general neuromuscular weakness Insulinoma
Other tumors occasionally associated with hypoglycemia are hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoma,mammary tumor, pulmonary carcinoma,salivary carcinoma and leiomyoma.
plasmacytoma and myeloma in dogs and cats Immunoglobulin production
DIC in dogs hemangiosarcoma
cause of ulcers in stomach and duodenum in dogs in MCT hyperheparinemia
in dogs with metastatic fibrosarcoma, renal tubular carcinoma Neutrophilic leukocytosis
In dogs in anaplastic mammary carcinoma and fibrosarcoma Eosinophilia
transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder, MCT and lymphosarcoma in cats
space occupying tumor in bone marrow, hemorrhagic and hemolytic anemia in tumor bearing animals anemia
in dogs with renal cell carcinoma, renal lymphosarcoma and renal fibrosarcoma Polycythemia
In dogs with bronchogenic carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, thyroid adenocarcinoma and mast cell tumors Peripheral nerve syndrome
seen associated with thymoma. Also with cholangiocellular carcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma Mysthenia gravis
In cats with pancreatic carcinoma Alopecia
In middle aged dogs associated with renal cystadenocarcinoma.Multiple cutaneous nodules on extremities, ulcerate and cause lameness, usually bilateral Nodular dermatofibrosis
Created by: alljacks



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