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Canine filariasis Dirofilaria immitis
Dog Heartworm Canine Heartworm
Is heartworm zoonotic Yes
Definitive hosts for heartworm Dogs, cats, foxes and wolves (also sea lions, seals, bears and ferrets)
What are the incidental findings of heartworm Calcified lesions in skin and/or lungs
What are the clinical signs of heartworm Fever, cough, chest pain and eosinophilia
Are cats good hosts for Dirofilaria No, infection prevalence is <10% of unprotected dogs in any area
What shape tails do adult male Dirofilaria have Coiled, 15-20CM
What shape tails do adult female Dirofilaria have Straight - 25-30CM
What colour are adult heartworms White
Where do adult heartworms reside In the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle
True or False - female Dirofilaria are larviporous/viviparous TRUE
What are the pre-larvae called in Dirofilaria Microfilaria
Where do microfilariae circulate In the blood
Where do microfilariae develop (L1-L3) In malphigian tubules of mosquitoes
Where are the MF deposited from mosquito mouthparts Next to the feeding site
How long to L3's have to make it into the site of feeding 3-5 minutes
Where do MF molt to L4 larvae In the SQ tissues
How long does the molt from L3 to L4 take 304 days
How long do juvenile worms migrate for (L4/L5) 2-3 months
Where does L5 migrate to The heart
How long does L5 to adult maturation take 3 months
When do mosquitoes feed more In the evening
How long can IH mosquitoes survive for 600 days, overwinter in burrows
Can transplacental transmission take place in heartworms Yes
What is the prepatent period of heartworm 6 months
How long is the patent period of heartworm 5-6 years
How long can circulating MF survive in the host Up to 2 years
At what temperature does development of Dirofilaria cease to happen Under 57oC
Is transmission seasonal Yes, summer months more prevalent
Where do mosquito IH for Dirofilaria overwinter Rodent burrows
What two behavioural activities can influence transmission of Heartworm Closeness to water and being outdoors
What five conditions affect occult infections Abberant migrations, single sex infections, immune mediated removal, drug sterilization and prepatent infections
What is the (underestimated) prevalence in canines (USA) 25% or 9 out 1000 (make sense
What are the clinical signs in an early infection of heartworm No clinical signs
What are the clinical signs in a moderate disease infection Coughing, abnormal lung sounds and exercise intolerance
What are the clinical signs in severe disease infections Dyspnea, hepatomegaly, syncope, ascites + death
What do dogs mainly exhibit in heartworm infections Cardiopulmonary disease signs (soft to deep chest cough, rapid breathing, exercise intolerance, fatigue, inappetence and anemia
In very serious cases congestive heart failure may occur, what are the signs cardiac arrythmias, hemoglobinuria, icterus and edema
Are heartworm infections in cats easy to diagnose No, may be asymptomatic or respiratory signs and death
What is the most common clinical sign in hearrtworm infected cats Respiratory signs
What does HARD stand for Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease
What are the outcomes of HARD Vascular and airway disease, allergic bronchitis due to death of immature worms in respiratory passages
What percentage of infections are occult infections in cats 80% are occult (low circulating antigen, 1-2 worms)
Are antigen or antigen tests good for detecting cat infections No
What are the pathology and clinical signs related to Worm burden and location, duration of infection, age and size of the dog, activity of the dog
Obstructive pulmonary arterial disease causes clinical disease - name two Endarteritis (villous/rugae formation), Thrombus formation (arterial obstruction)
What are the sequelae of chronic obstructive disease Enlargement of pulmonary artery and caudal lobar branches, reverse "D", congestive right heart failure
What does thromboembolism look like Pruned tree in dogs, pulmonary pathology of lungs
How does liver damage occur in heartworm infections From obstructed flow
How does kidney damage occur in heart worm infections Renal capsular inflammation
Does interstitial pneumonitis affect both cats and dogs Yes, interstitial bronchitis + inflammation
What is caval syndrome Obstruction of the tricuspid valve - VERY SERIOUS
What is the primary diagnosis for heartworm Serodiagnosis (ELISA) - based on female antigen detection
What are the problems with serodiagnosis (ELISA) as a diagnostic test Occult infections, false negatives (rare), too few female worms, immature infections, Ag clearance (spleen + kidneys)
How do you identify MF in blood (what test) Modified Knott's Test
What signs can be picked up in radiography concerning heartworm Reverse "D", enlarged, blunt, tortuous pulmonary arteries (good for felids)
Which test demonstrates worms in the heart and pulmonary arteries Echocardiography (ultrasound) - RH enlargement is rare in cats
What is the best treatment Prevention
What is the basic strategy for prevention of heartworm Eliminate adult worms, circulating MF + prevent re-infection
Which species is Adulticide not recccommended in and why Cats - causes thromboembolism and death
What is the drug name and trade name for Adulticide Melarsomine dihydrochloride or Immiticide
What are the advantages of immiticide or adulticide Does not impair liver or kidney function, no sloughing at the injection site, it has high efficacy
What is the alternate treatment to adulticide Surgical removal of adults (not for cats)
What is the post treatment support for heartworm Rest, fluids, corticosteroids if needed
How do you cause death of microfilaria (microfilaricide) NO FDA approved drug - Ivermectin and Milbemycin Oxime
What bacteria can be used to detect heartworm, as it has a symbiotic relationship Wolbachia, in "slow kill" cases
What does tetracycline do to adult female worms Results in infertility in female worms
What is used for prevention of infection or re-infection of heartworm Chemoprophylaxis - marrocyclic lactones (avermectin + milbemycin) + mosquito control with permethrins
Why is Dipetalonema reconditum so important as a parasite in dogs Can be confused with MF of Dirofilaria immitis duringh diagnosis, but it is NON-pathogenic
What is the intermediate host for Dipetalonema reconditum Fleas (Ctenocephalides + Pulex) or the Louse (Heterodoxus spiniger)
How long does development take in the IH for Dipetalonema reconditum 7-14 days
How long does development of L3 to adult take in Heartworm Mimic 2-3 months
Where do adult worms reside in dog SQ + Connective tissues
Where do MF circulate in Dipetalonema reconditum The blood
What is the difference between DI and DR in terms of worm number in infections DI - Numerous/ DR - Only a few
Which species is smaller DI or DR DR - 240-290uM (290-340uM in DR)
What is the difference in width between DI and DR DI - 6-72uM (5-6uM in DR)
The difference when stained with alkaline phosphotase between DI + DR DI - localized in anal/buccal areas/DR - uniform staining of body cavities
What will the ELISA test show in Dipetalonema infections Negative
Which criteria are used in Modified Knott's Test preparations Length + Width
What is the family of Thorny Head Worms known as Acanthocephala (Thorny Head)
What are the definitive hosts for Thorny Head Worms Domestic animals and free ranging laborotory animals (primates, salmon, water-fowl)
How do you identify Thorny Head Worms Retractable spiny proboscis, pink in colour, flat body, NO digestive tract
What does the larva develop into in the Thorny head worm Acanthor
What is the IH for the Thorny Head Worm Arthropods
What stage is passed through before becoming encysted infective larva in THW Acanthella stage (to become cystacanth)
What can happen to the cystacanth once developed Re-encysts in PH or can re-encyst in the DH
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Thorny Head Worm of Small Intestine (Swine)
How do pigs aquire Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus When rooting for beetle grubs
How long is the cystacanth stage in the beetle 3 months
How long is the PPP of Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus 2-3 months
What are the clinical signs in pigs with THW infection Asymptomatic or diarrhea, emaciation, abdominal pain, and peritonitis (2ndary bacterial infections)
What are the depth of clinical signs dependant on Depth of the proboscis in the intestinal wall
What is the treatment for THW infections Ivermectin or benzimidazoles
Created by: alljacks



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