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304.3 Vet nursing Nutrients, Minerals and Vitamins

What is an essential nutrient? Required and unable to be synthesized by the body
3 energy producing nutrients? Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat
How much energy does 1 gram of carbs produce? 4kcal
How much energy does 1 gram of protein produce? 4kcal
How much energy does 1 gram of fat produce? 9kcal
3 non-energy producing nutrients? Vitamins, Minerals and water
What are macro-nutrients? Nutrients needed in relatively large quantities
What are micro-nutrients? Nutrients needed in relatively small quantities
What are the 3 primary functions of carbohydrates? An energy source. Can be converted to body fat and stored. A good source of fibre.
3 types of carbs? Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides
What are monosaccharides? Simple sugars. A single carbohydrate molecule.
The 3 main monosaccharides are? Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
What are disaccharides? 2 carbohydrate molecules linked together.
3 examples of disaccharides Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose
Which monosaccharides is lactose made from? Glucose and galactose
Which monosaccharides is maltose made from? Glucose and glucose
Which monosaccharides is sucrose made from? Glucose and fructose
What are polysaccharides? Long chains of linked carbohydrate molecules. Also know as complex carbohydrates.
3 examples of polysaccharides Starch, Glycogen, Fibre
What enzyme is found in the saliva of omnivores and herbivores? Amylase
What polysaccharide does this enzyme break up? Starch
Name of the cells lining the small intestine Enterocytes
Enterocytes of the intestines contain what kind of enzymes? Disaccharidases
Feline saliva lacks which enzyme? Amylase
Feline pancreatic amylase production is only what percentage of dog production? 5%
How does fibre differ from starch? Resists enzymatic digestion in small intestine and undergoes bacterial fermentation in the colon instead
What are the 2 products of fibre fermentation? Gases and short chain fatty acids
What are the 4 functions of dietary fibre? Increase bulk and water of intestinal contents, Regulate gut transit time and bowel movements, Produce SCFAs that help maintain the health of the colon, Low energy content helps correction and prevention of obesity
Fibre can be classified as? Soluble and insoluble
Insoluble fibre can prevent what? Constipation
What can excessive fibre intake cause? Flatulence, Increased bowel movements, Increased faecal output, Constipation
Lipids are what? Fats and oils
The most common dietary fat is? Triglycerides
What are triglycerides composed of? One molecule of glycerol and 3 molecules of fatty acid
What are the 7 functions of dietary fat? Provision and storage of energy, Provision of essential fatty acids, Aid absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, Metabolic and structural functions, Insulation, Enhance palatability, Synthesise hormones (esp steroids)
What are the fat-soluble vitamins? A, D, E and K
Which enzyme digests fat? Lipase
Digestion of fat is aided by what process? Emulsification
What substance breaks the fat into smaller droplets? Bile
What does lipase break down fat into? Glycerol and fatty acids
Products of fat digestion are absorbed by which cells in the intestines? Lacteals
Digested fat is transported to the blood supply by which other system? Lymph
Stored fat is broken down by what organ for energy? Liver
What are essential fatty acids? Required but not synthesized by the body
What are 3 essential fatty acids? Linoleic acid, Linolenic acid and Arachidonic acid
Which fatty acid must cats get straight from their diet? Arachidonic acid
What are the functions of essential fatty acids? Important components of cell membranes, Precursor to many substances in the body
What are some signs of fatty acid deficiency? Dry coat, scaly skin, slow healing wounds, hair loss, ear infections
What are proteins? Long strings of amino acids
What are the functions of dietary protein? Tissue growth and repair, manufacture of hormones and enzymes, source of energy, protection against infections, transport oxygen, regulation of metabolism, structural role in cell walls.
Amino acids joined together are called what? Peptides
What are essential amino acids? Required but not synthesized by the body
Where does most protein digestion take place? Upper small intestine (duo and jej)
What enzyme begins protein digestion in the stomach? Pepsin
Can surplus amino acids be stored? No
What is the biological value of protein? The percentage of absorbed protein retained by the body.
What percentage of the mammalian body is made of water? 60-70%
What is the function of water in the body? Electrolyte balance, Temp regulation, remove waste, transport, make blood and lymph, chemical reactions involving hydrolysis
What can increase the need for water? Polyuria/polydipsia, Temp (environment and body), type and amount of food eaten, stress, illness, diarrhoea/vomiting, exercise, lactation
Water losses can be replaced by? Metabolism of nutrients, liquid water, water from food
What percentage of water does dry food contain? 6-10%
Created by: 18000305



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