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Digestive system

302.3 Vet nursing Anatomy and Physiology of the Digestive System

6 basic components of the digestive tract Mouth, Pharynx, Oesophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine
3 Digestive accessory glands Salivary glands, Liver and gall bladder, Pancreas
5 key functions of the digestive tract Prehension, Mastication, Digestion, Absorption, Elimination
What is ingestion? Process of taking food into the body
What is digestion? Process of breaking down food into small chemical units
What is absorption? Process whereby chemical units pass into the blood and are carried to the liver
What is metabolism? Process in which the chemical units are converted into energy for use by all the organs of the body
What is excretion? The removal of any remaining indigestible material from the body
Oral mucosa of the mouth is made of which epithelial cells? Stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of the lips? Prehension - picking up food
The cleft in the middle of the upper lip is the? Philtrum
The mucous membrane of the cheeks is called? Buccal mucosa
Why do carnivores have smaller cheeks? To open their mouths wider to help catch prey.
The soft palate divides the pharynx into what 2 ares? Oropharynx and nasopharynx
The tongue is made from what kind of muscle? Striated muscle
The tongue is attached to which 2 boney structures? Hyoid bones and the mandible
The name for the line down the middle of the tongue? Median groove
The name for where the tongue attaches to the back of the mouth? Root
The tip of the tongue? Apex
Fleshy structure attaching tongue to base of mouth? Frenulum
What are the 6 functions of the tongue? Aid ingestion of food, Taste-buds, Forms food bolus for swallowing, Groom fur, Assist thermoregulation, Suckling in newborns
The small projections on the surface of the tongue are called? Papillae
Why do cats have well developed papillae? Grooming and holding prey. Also scrape meat off bones.
4 types of teeth. Incisors, Canines, Pre-molars and Molars
What are incisors used for? Cutting food, picking up items and grooming
What are canines used for? Holding prey, slashing and tearing and act as a cradle for the tongue
What are pre-molars for? Holding, carrying and breaking food into small pieces
What are molars for? Grinding food into small pieces (chewing)
What are the 8 parts of the tooth? Crown, Root, Alveolar bone, Enamel, Dentine, Cementum, Periodontal ligament, Pulp
What is the crown of the tooth? Part of the tooth above the level of the gum. Covered by enamel.
What is the root of the tooth? The part of the tooth beneath the level of the gum. Attached to the jaw bone.
In teeth with 2 or more roots, what is the place where they diverge called? Furcation angle
The end of the root where the nerves and blood vessels emerge? Apex
What is enamel of the tooth? Hardest substance in the body, but quite brittle. Has no nerve supply. Covers crown of tooth. Cant be replaced.
What is the dentine of the tooth? Main supporting structure of the tooth. 2nd hardest after enamel. Has nerves so can be painful if exposed.
What is the cementum of the tooth? Covers the enamel free roots and provides a point of attachment for the periodontal ligament
What is the periodontal ligament? Taught collagen fibers which are attached to the cementum of the tooth and the alveolar bone.
What is the pulp of the tooth? Living tissue within the tooth. Well innervated and vascularised.
How many teeth do dogs have? 42
What is the canine dental formula? I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M2/3
The mouth is split into 4 sections of teeth called what? Dental arc/arcade
How many teeth do cats have? 30
What is the feline dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1
What are brachydontic teeth? Teeth which stop growing once they reach their final size
What are hypsodontic teeth? Teeth which don't stop growing
How much can a horse wear down its teeth over a year? 2-3mm
How many teeth do horses have? 42
What is the equine dental formula? I3/3 C1/1 P4/3 M3/3
What is the "wolf teeth" in horses? The first pre-molar in the top jaw
What are the 4 functions of saliva? Moisten and lubricate food bolus, Continuously wash more to reduce bacteria, Omnivore and herbivore saliva contains amylase, Thermoregulation (panting)
Saliva production is increased by what? Sight and smell of food and nausea
Saliva production is decreased by what? Fear and dehydration
What are the 4 salivary glands in cats and dogs? Zygomatic, Sublingual, Mandibular and Parotid
What are the 4 salivary glands in horses? Buccal, Sublingual, Mandibular and Parotid
What is swallowing also known as ? Deglutition
What is the oesophagus? a simple tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach
the oesophagus lies where in relation to the trachea? Dorsal
the oesophagus lies on which side of the neck? Left
What type of epithelium lines the oesophagus? Stratified squamous
How many layers of muscle does the oesophagus have? 2
Which direction does the inner layer of muscle sit? Circular
What is the name of the rhythmic movement of oesophagus muscles? Peristaltic waves
Sphincter at the entrance to the stomach? Cardiac sphincter
Sphincter at the exit to the stomach? Pyloric sphincter
Name the 4 layers of the stomach. Serosa, Smooth muscle, Submucosa, Mucosa
Name the 3 areas of the stomach Cardiac, Fundus, Pyloric
Dogs and cats stomachs are described as what? Monogastric
The walls of the stomach are lined with what? Gastric mucosa
What are the three cells responsible for secretion of gastric juices? Goblet cells, Chief cells, Parietal cells
What do the goblet cells secrete? Mucus to lubricate food and protect stomach lining
What do the chief cells secrete? Pepsinogen - precurser to pepsin which breaks down proteins
What do the parietal cells secrete? Hydrochloric acid - creates an acid pH and turns pepsinogen into pepsin
Where are the chief and parietal cells found in the stomach? Fundus
The name of the mix of food and digestive enzymes Chime
3 parts of the small intestine Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is segmentation in the small intestine? Breaking apart and mixing together of the food boluses
The tiny folds on the epithelium of the small intestines? Villi
Junction of the ileum and caecum? Iliocaecal junction
3 parts of the large intestine? Caecum, Colon, Rectum
3 parts of the colon Ascending, transverse and descending
There are no what in the large intestine? Villi or digestive glands
What are there more of in the large intestines? Goblet cells
Horses are classed as what kind of digesters? Hind gut fermenters
Horses cannot vomit due to what? Cardiac sphincter
How long is the small intestine in horses? 25m
What differences are there in horse guts compared to dogs/cats? Smaller stomach by body size, longer guts, larger caecum
Which organisms are used to break down cellulose in herbivores? Protozoa and bacteria
Created by: 18000305