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AVBS3001 general

Broad questions from Agents of Disease

What are 4 types of disease causing agents? Physical, chemical, genetic, infectious
What are the characteristics of an infectious agent? Ability to invade and multiply in/on host, produce toxins, transmissible
What are 4 factors that influence the HPEI? Pathogen, its effect on host (pathology), host response and environment
How does disease result? When the HPE interactions favour the pathogen and produce a pathological host response
What are the 8 significant zoonotic diseases in Australia? Anthrax, Bat Lyssavirus, Hendra virus, Q fever, Chlamydiosis, Arboviruses, Toxoplasmosis, Leptospirosis
What are some parasitic factors that influence disease risk? Strains, virulence, properties, toxins, dose, methods and duration of exposure
What are some host factors that influence disease risk? Species, genotype, age, nutritional status, reproductive status, past exposure/immunity, concurrent disease/injury, behaviour
What are some environmental factors that influence disease risk? Climate, altitude, topography, other species, population density, water/food/soil/air quality, season
How can we establish causation within an individual? Establish evidence of disease process assoc. with a pathogen, virulence traits and animal pathogenicity models (infectious agent causes same disease when exposed to a susceptible animal)
What are the 3 parts of taxonomy? Classification, nomenclature and identification
What are the features/purpose of the cytoplasmic membrane? Phospholipid bilayer, osmotic barrier, responsible for many functions perfermed by organelles
What are the features and types of bacterial cell wall? Rigid carbohydrate-based structure, maintains shape and protects cytoplasmic membrane, gram neg or pos
What are the 4 main steps when doing a gram stain on a slide? Crystal violet, iodine (trapping dye), acetone (decolourise), safranin (counter stain)
What are the visible differences between gram positive and gram negative bacteria? Gram + retain crystal violet, gram - show counterstain
What are the features of the gram positive cell wall? Lipoteichoic acid polymers, bound to cell membrane and/or peptidoglycan, antigenic specificity
What are the features of the gram negative cell wall? Lipopolysaccharide, protects against enzymatic attack, aids survival in small intestine
What are the nutrient requirements of bacteria? Water, carbon/energy source, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus
What are some features of enveloped viruses? Have host phospholipids, have glycoproteins of viral origin, lipid rich, more fragile, need humoral AND cell mediated immunity
What are some features of non-enveloped viruses? More resilient, have capsid cell surface proteins, only need humoral immunity
What are some features of DNA viruses? Most are double-stranded, most replicate in the nucleus, stable, less prone to mutation, persistent infection
What are some features of RNA viruses? Most are single-stranded, most replicate in cytoplasm, labile and prone to mutation
What are the 2 types of metazoan parasites? Arthropods and Helminths
What are the 2 types of arthropods? Insects (flies, mosquitoes) and acarines (ticks, mites)
What are the 3 types of helminths? Nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes)
What are the 3 segments of tapeworms? Scolex, neck, strobila
What is the pathogen to disease flow? Source --> attachment and entry --> invasion --> evasion --> replication --> damage and symptoms --> recovery, persist or death --> transmission to susceptible animal
What are the 3 pathogenic characteristics that determine virulence? Invasiveness, infectivity and pathogenicity
How is virulence measured? Infectious dose (ID50) or Lethal dose (LD50). Pathogen is more virulent if it takes less to establish an infeciton and cause disease
What are some characteristics of saprophytes? Live freely in enviro, don't normally infect animal, enviro conditions can have dramatic effect on number of organisms, germination occurs due to trauma to coat or exposure to favourable enviros for growth
What are some features of respiratory pathogens? Aerosols that adhere to host cells, mucous membranes, trachea, alveoli or nasopharynx. Concurrent infections aid bacterial colonisation by interfering with pulmonary clearance mechanisms
What are some features of intestinal pathogens? Resistant to low pH and bile salt, motility adaptations for fluid (flagella)
How might a pathogen enter via the urogenital tract? Attachment and flagella are important, trauma during mating, sexual transmission
What are the 3 locations where dissemination can occur? Blood/lymph, neural, between visceral organs
How does dissemination occur in blood or lymph? Septicaemia, deposited in capillary beds- growing regions where flow rates are low
How does neural dissemination occur? Peipheral nervous system to the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier
How does dissemination occur between visceral organs? Fluids with peritoneal and pleural cavity, infections can extent from a local external site internally
What are the 2 modes of horizontal transmission? Direct- susceptible animal has physical contact with infected animal/secretions Indirect- no direct physical contact, carried by vector or fomite
Created by: tazza261