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A&P: Cells

matter anything that occupies space and has mass
element A single pure substance consisting of only one type of atom
Atom Smallest unit of an element that retains unique properties of the element
Protons Have a positive electric charge
Neutrons Have no electric charge
Electrons Have a negative electric charge
Atomic number Equal to the number of protons found in the nucleus
Ion Charged atom
Isotopes Atoms that contain a different number of neutrons
Radioactive isotope Emits particles of energy at a constant rate and thereby changes into a stable, noradioactie element
Rate of decay
Electron shell The area around the nucleus where the electrons have their most likely position First shell: holds only 2 electrons Second shell: can hold up to 8 electrons
Compound A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements
Molecule Smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that compound
Solution Homogenous mixture of various substances (ex: water) Compound: solvent & solutes
Colloid (Or emulsions) Heterogeneous mixtures that contain larger sized solutes than solutions (ex: jello)
Suspension Heterogeneous mixtures containing large solutes that readily separate from teh solution when there is no movement of suspension (ex: blood)
Chemical bond When two atoms are sharing or transferring electrons between them
Covalent bond Strong chemical bond when atoms share electrons Electrons spend time in outer shell of one atom and the rest in outer shell of another atom
Single, double, and triple covalent bonds When 1, 2, or 3 electrons are shared
Polar molecule A molecule with oppositely charged ends
Ionic bond When electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Electrostatic attraction
Cation A positively charged ion
Anion A negatively charged ion
Ion An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Hydrogen bond More of an electrostatic attraction Electrons are neither shared or transferred Weaker than covalent and ionic bonds
Chemical reaction Involves the formation and breaking of chemical bonds 3 types: synthesis, decomposition, and exchange
Chemical equation The way in which he reaction is described in writing
Synthesis reaction A new and more complex chemical is made by combining multiple smaller molecules or elements together
Protein Used for cell structures and structural body tissues, for controlling chemical reactions, for regulating growth, and for defending the body from invaders
Decomposition reaction Constructive
A single chemical is broken down into multiple, smaller chemical units
Catabolic Degradative
Exchange reaction Atoms are exchanged between molecules A combination of synthesis and decomposition
Activation energy The energy required for the reaction to happen
Catalyst Usually special proteins that hold the reactants together to they may interact Catalyst proteins are called enzymes
Enzymes A substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
Organic compounds Tend to be large, complex molecules that contain carbon-carbon covalent bonds or carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds Including: proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides, and nucleic acids
Inorganic molecules Including: water, salts, acids, and bases Rarely contain carbon, and do not contain carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds Tend to be small molecules and often have ionic bonding
Solute Chemicals added to water
Solvent The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Hydrophilic Water-loving
Hydrophobic Water-hating
Electrolytes Substances that have the ability to transmit an electric charge
pH scale 1: most acidic 14: most alkaline or basic 7: neutral
Buffer A solution that resists changes in pH when acid or alkali is added to id. Typically, a weak acid of alkali together with one of its salts
Buffering the solution Keeping the pH in a neutral range
Macromolecules Long, complex molecules, often with repeating units
Carbohydrates Molecules used for energy, storage of energy, and cellular structures Ex: sugar and starch
Monosaccharide Any sugars that cannot by hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar
Disaccharide When two monosaccharides are joined together
Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water
Polysaccharides The combinations of many monosaccharides all joined by dehydration synthesis
Glycoprotein A macromolecule composed of a carbohydrate attached to a protein Important roles: adhesion of the cell to other cells and recognition of molecules to be transported into the cell
Lipids Used as energy and are stored in fat for future energy needs
Neutral fats / triglyceride Contains 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule Used for energy
Phospholipids 2 fatty acids attached to the glycerol In place of 3rd fatty acid, there is a phosphate group Main component of cellular membranes
Steroids Lipids that take form of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings Hydrophobic, non-polar substances with very little oxygen
Eicosanoids Lipids formed from a 20-carbon fatty acid and a ring structure Important substances for the mediation of complex chemical processes in teh body
Lipoproteins Used to transport fats within the body The hydrophilic proteins allow the fats to be shielded from the blood plasma
Cholesterol Used in the formation of bile salts, which aid in fat digestion Also used in adrenal glands, testes, and ovaries for creation of steroid hormones including: cortisone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Prostaglandins (PGs) Mediate inflammation
Thromboxane Mediates platelet function
Leukotrienes Mediate bronchoconstriction and increased mucus production
Amino acids
Created by: juliaportella



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