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VNC #9

Skin; Wounds; healing; Neonatal; Geriatric; Disabled

QuestionAnswer
What is the largest organ of the body? Skin
What are the main functions of the skin? Protection, temperature control, electrolyte balance, sensory functions
Name the 3 layers of the skin and characteristics of each. Epidermis: protection, sensory functions Dermis: Supports and nourshiss the epidermis and skin appendages Subcutaneous: contains fat for insulation, reservoir for fluids, electrolytes, and energy, shock absorber
What are the skin appendages? What are the functions/ characteristics of each. Hair follicles, oil, sweat glands, and claws Hair protects skin oil protects hair and skin sweat glands temp control
Sebum What is its functions Oily substance secreted from sebaceous glands. Keep skin soft, moist, pliable, hair coat sheen, and antibiotic properties
How does the epidermis in haired areas vs. non-haired areas (foot pads) differ? haired areas is not as thick as non-haired areas
Integumentary System Skin system
Dermatology Study of the skin
What area of the skin would you administer subQ fluids and medications? just under the skin or between the skin and muscle layer
What are the 3 phases of wound healing and describe what occurs in each phase. 1. Inflammatory: 3-5 days. Blood clot & wound cleaning. 2. Proliferative; 2-3 days. fibroblasts & granulation tissue, collagen deposits 3. Maturation/remodeling; 3 wks and lasts months remodel & align wound will never be as strong as normal tissue
What are neutrophils and macrophages and what are their functions? modulate wound healing by releasing more growth factor. Also help remove bacteria and cellular debris from the wound.
When is wound strength minimal? during the inflammatory phase or #1
What is granulation tissue? Why is it important? fills wound 3-5 days after injury, creating a barrier against infection
Epithelialization begins 4-5 days post injury. occurs from wound edges and works inward. cells advance in a single layer across the wound until they meet in the middle
Exudate a mass of cells and fluid that has seeped out of blood vessels or an organ, especially in inflammation.
What factors affect wound healing? health of animal, status of wound, concurrent treatment of the patient
What are some diseases that may cause a delay in wound healing? age, cushing disease, hypothyroidism, chronic viral infections, diabetes mellitus, orthopedic problems,
What medication what when used long-term, can decrease the body's inflammatory response, and delay all phases and wound healing? radiation therapy, corticosteroids
What is the primary cause for the healing or repair process of wounds to stop? wound exudate
Lick Granuloma. What are the causes and treatment? injury to skin caused by chronic licking. Anitibiotics and Anti-inflammatory drugs then some kind of bandage that will keep animal from licking wound
Why does bite wound abscesses occur? Why do they take longer to heal without proper care? bites cause injury to deep tissue. Injury doesn't heal from inside out so healing traps bacteria inside
Abrasions Description Healing Treatment partial thickness dermal wounds heal well by re-epithelialization maintian a moist wound environment over dry out and scab over
Lacerations Description Healing Treatment tearing of skin and deeper tissues. relatively sharply incised and trauma to surrounding area is minimal lavaged, debridement, and sutured
Degloving injuries Description Healing Treatment large section of skin is torn off the underlying tissue in a glove- like fashion. requires weeks to months of extensive wound therapy usually heavily contaminated and large amounts of devitilized tissue
Bite wounds Description Healing Treatment extensive injury to deep tissue Hard to heal as it tends to heal outside in and trap bacteria
Burns Description Healing Treatment
Decubitus Ulcers Pressure Sores Description Healing Treatment
What are the 4 classifications of wounds? Abrasion. An abrasion occurs when your skin rubs or scrapes against a rough or hard surface. ... Laceration. A laceration is a deep cut or tearing of your skin. ... Puncture. ... Avulsion
Describe what you would do for an animal that has just been hit by a car and has some wounds that are not bleeding too badly at this point. Provide supportive care. Cover wounds with wet sterile bandages
Understand the 6 steps for properly managing wounds. 1. prevent further contamination 2.remove foreign debris and contamination 3. debride nonviable tissue 4. Manage wound drainage 5. protect wound thru inflammatory and proliferative stage 6. Select appropriate wound closure
What would you do to the wound prior to clipping the hair around the wound in order to prepare for treatment or surgery? Apply water soluable lubricant prior to clipping so hair sticks to it and can be washed off
Why would you not want to apply soap or surgical scrub to a wound?
What is lavage and why is it important?
What fluid and supplies could you use to lavage a wound? lactated rings or normal saline
What fluid is least toxic to healing tissue?
List 2 antiseptic solutions that can be safely used to lavage a wound.
Should you dilute these 2 antiseptic solutions prior to using them in a wound? Why?
What is debridement and why is it important?
Describe the appearance of nonviable tissue. (ie necrotic tissue = dead tissue)
Why can sugar and honey be beneficial in the management of some open wounds? sugar dries wound out honey has low pH and great antibacterial properties
What factors influence the choice of wound closure?
List the 4 methods of wound closure and why/when you would perform each method. Primary closure with primary intention wound healing Delayed primary closure secondary closure second intention wound healing
Define dehiscence. surgical complication in which a wound ruptures along a surgical incision. Risk factors include age, collagen disorder such as Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, diabetes, obesity, poor knotting or grabbing of stitches, and trauma to the wound after surgery.
How do passive drains work? allowing fluid to flow along the drain surgace as the result of capillary reaction also allows direct avenue for infection
What is the most commonly used passive drain used in small animals? penrose drain
How long should a Penrose drain be left in place? 3-5 days or when fluid decreases
True or False Granulation tissue is a good thing. Why?
Can you see some drainage occur from a healthy wound? yes-serosanguinous clear fluid
What should you send home with a patient that has a drain in place, to help prevent the drain / sutures from being removed prematurely? elizabethan colar
What is the neonatal period of puppies and kittens The first 2-4 weeks of life
When a neonate is presented to the veterinary clinic, what history questions should you ask the owner? # of ill pts, method of how was raised like mom or milk replacer, normal envirnment looks like, behavior of each baby within litter, body weight curves, duration and clinical signs, meds, history of mom including vacc hx, nutrition, meds, supplements
What are some important points regarding examination of neonates in the clinic? id all pts, pedi stethoscope used, digital thermometer, warming surface, check mucous membranes for signs of hydration, check color of pt, any blue or dark red is bad, check head, mouth and eyes closely
How often do neonates normally nurse during the first week of life? every 2-4 hours for a very short amount of time.
List some problems that can occur in neonates that need immediate medical attention. dehydration, hypoglycemia, isoerythrolysis, malnutrition, fading puppy syndrome, fading kitten syndrome, orphan
What is colostrum? How long is it produced? Why is important? first 24 hours of milk flow. a highly concentrated mixture of large protein antibody molecules, water, vitamins, electrolytes, and nutrients
How long can a puppy / kitten absorb the antibodies from colostrum? just the 24 hours actually closer to 18 hours postpartum
Why is it important for dams to be vaccinated prior to becoming pregnant? to gain active immunity that they can pass to offspring while inutero
When should kittens and puppies be dewormed? Which internal parasite is of most concern during this time? beginning at 2 weeks of life with pyrantel pamoate and at 2 week intervels. Used to treat roundworms
At what temperature should neonates be kept during Wk 1; Wks 2 - 4; and Wk 5 post birth? 84-90 with 55-60% humidity 79-84 73.4-79
What could you use to warm neonates? Why would you need to take great care with these devices? low temperature padding
How often should neonates be fed each day. Why do you think that frequent feedings are important? 1st week= 5 feedings then 3-4 feedings per day until weaned @ Week 1: 13 mL/100g Week 2: 16 mL/100g Week 3: 19 mL/100g Week 4: 22 mL/100g
What is “Aspiration Pneumonia”? How can it occur in neonates? pneumonia from fluid inhaled Eating so fast food gets into lungs
If you were dealing with caring for neonatal orphans, how would you go about inducing elimination and how often would you do this? use a wet paper towel or baby wipe and gently wipe genitals so animal expels elimination
Is there a difference between small breeds and large breeds of dogs with respect to aging and lifespans? small breed: senior 9-12 yrs geriatric 12+ years large/giant breed senior:6-9 years geriatric 9+ years
What are some of the factors that can affect life expectancy and how quickly dogs and cats age?
What are some conditions that commonly occur in aging dogs and cats? oral health abnormalities, urinary and fecal incontinence, vision loss, hearing loss, cardiac disease, resp. disease, neoplasia, kidney disease, dermatologic disease, orthopedic disease, metabolic conditions
Know of the common metabolic and physical effects of aging in dogs and cats.
Define Cognitive Dysfunction in dogs and cats.
Understand the causes, prevention, and treatment for the following: (Jack Article & McCurnin text)
• Decubital Ulcers
• Urine and Fecal Scalding
• Lung Atelectasis
Why should you not use diaper rash creams containing zinc oxide in pets?
List the basic nursing care for recumbent patients.
Define Decubital Ulcers.
What are some causes of urinary incontinence?
What problems can occur in a patient with urinary incontinence?
How often should the urinary bladder be expressed in a recumbent patient?
What are some devices / treatments that will benefit recumbent / paralyzed patients?
List the clinical signs of pain / discomfort in dogs and cats.
List the 3 most common classes of medications, and their potential side effects, that are prescribed to help manage pain in animals.
Gestation Period for Dogs 58 – 68 days
Gestation Period for Cats 58 – 67 days
Dogs: Age when eyes open Age when ears canal open Age when umbilicus falls off Age when testises descend Age when weaned Age when eyes open Age when ears canal open Age when umbilicus falls off: Day 2-3 Age when testises descend: 6-8 months Age when weaned: 4 weeks of age
Cat: Age when eyes open Age when ears canal open Age when umbilicus falls off Age when testises descend Age when weaned Age when eyes open Age when ears canal open Age when umbilicus falls off: day 2 to 3 Age when testises descend: birth Age when weaned: 4 weeks of age
Created by: gina.baker