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Digestive System Voc

vocabulary

TermDefinition
Monogastric A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, which has a four-chambered complex stomach.
Mouth The opening in the lower part of the human face, surrounded by the lips, through which food is taken in and from which speech and other sounds are emitted.
Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the throat (pharynx) with the stomach.
Stomach The internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.
Small Intestine The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of the food takes place.
Cecum The cecum or caecum is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It is typically located on the right side of the body (the same side of the body as the appendix, to which it is joined).
Large Intestine The large intestine, also known as the large bowel, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation.
Rectum The rectum is the last stop before the feces is eliminated through the anal canal. Similar to the colon electrolytes are absorbed & indigestible food ingredients are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. The stool is thickened through water absorption & mix.
Ruminant Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Rumen The first stomach of a ruminant, which receives food or cud from the esophagus, partly digests it with the aid of bacteria, and passes it to the reticulum.
Reticulum The second stomach of a ruminant, having a honeycomb-like structure, receiving food from the rumen and passing it to the omasum.
Omasum The muscular third stomach of a ruminant animal, between the reticulum and the abomasum.
Abomasum The fourth stomach of a ruminant, which receives food from the omasum and passes it to the small intestine.
Salivary Gland Any of various glands that discharge a fluid secretion & especially saliva into the mouth cavity & that in humans comprise large compound racemose glands including the parotid glands, the sublingual glands, and the submandibular glands.
Gallbladder The small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.
Pancreas A large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon.
Cardiac Valve Any of the valves that control blood flow to and from the heart and that include the atrioventricular valves, the aortic valve, and the pulmonary valve. Also called cardiac valve.
Pyloric Valve Once your stomach pulverizes the food, strong muscular contractions (peristaltic waves) push the food toward the pyloric valve, which leads to the upper portion of your small intestine.
Villi Any of the fingerlike or thread like projections from the surface of certain membranous structures, typically serving to increase surface area and facilitate the passage of fluid or nutrients.
Absorption The process or action by which one thing absorbs or is absorbed by another.
Alimentary Tract The mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system that extends from the mouth to the anus and through which food passes, digestion takes place, and wastes are eliminated; it includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
Accessory Digestive Organ An organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract.
Crop A cultivated plant that is grown as food, especially a grain, fruit, or vegetable.
Proventriculus The narrow glandular first region of a bird's stomach between the crop and the gizzard.
Gizzard A muscular, thick-walled part of a bird's stomach for grinding food, typically with grit.
Cloaca a common cavity at the end of the digestive tract for the release of both excretory & genital products in vertebrates (except most mammals) & certain invertebrates. Specifically, the cloaca is present in birds, reptiles, amphibians, most fish, &monotremes
Kidney Each of a pair of organs in the abdominal cavity of mammals, birds, and reptiles, excreting urine. the kidney of a sheep, ox, or pig as food.
Duodenum The first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum.
Pharynx The part of the throat behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Liver A large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly. The liver detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As a result, it secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines.It also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
Yolk Sac A membranous sac containing yolk attached to the embryos of reptiles and birds and the larvae of some fishes. a sac lacking yolk in the early embryo of a mammal.
Ileocecal Valve the valve formed by two folds of mucous membrane at the opening of the ileum into the large intestine.
Created by: jackieochoa