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Digestive System Voc

TermDefinition
Monogastric A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, which has a four-chambered complex stomach.
Mouth the opening in the lower part of the human face, surrounded by the lips, through which food is taken in and from which speech and other sounds are emitted.
Esophagus the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.
Stomach the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.
Small Intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Cecum a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines.
Large Intestine is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Rectum the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
Ruminant Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions
Rumen the first stomach of a ruminant, which receives food or cud from the esophagus, partly digests it with the aid of bacteria, and passes it to the reticulum.
Reticulum the second stomach of a ruminant, having a honeycomb-like structure, receiving food from the rumen and passing it to the omasum.
Omasum the muscular third stomach of a ruminant animal, between the reticulum and the abomasum.
Abomasum the fourth stomach of a ruminant, which receives food from the omasum and passes it to the small intestine.
Salivary Gland any of various glands that discharge a fluid secretion and especially saliva into the mouth cavity and that in humans comprise large compound racemose glands including the parotid glands, the sublingual glands, and the submandibular glands
Gallbladder the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine.
Pancreas a large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon.
Cardiac Valve any of the valves that control blood flow to and from the heart and that include the atrioventricular valves, the aortic valve, and the pulmonary valve.
Pyloric Valve is a strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal which lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum.
Villi any of the fingerlike or thread like projections from the surface of certain membranous structures, typically serving to increase surface area and facilitate the passage of fluid or nutrients.
Absorption The absorption of nutrients occurs partially by diffusion through the wall of the small intestine.
Alimentary Tract is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Accessory Digestive Organ An organ that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract
Crop This anatomical structure is found in a wide variety of animals. It has been found in birds, and in invertebrate animals including gastropods, earthworms, leeches, and insects.
Proventriculus the thick-walled muscular expansion of the esophagus above the stomach of crustaceans and insects.
Gizzard muscular, thick-walled part of a bird's stomach for grinding food, typically with grit.
Cloaca a common cavity at the end of the digestive tract for the release of both excretory and genital products in vertebrates (except most mammals) and certain invertebrates.
Kidney each of a pair of organs in the abdominal cavity of mammals, birds, and reptiles, excreting urine
Duodenum the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum.
Pharynx the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.
Liver a large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates, involved in many metabolic processes.
Yolk Sac a membranous sac containing yolk attached to the embryos of reptiles and birds and the larvae of some fishes.
Ileocecal Valve the valve formed by two folds of mucous membrane at the opening of the ileum into the large intestine.
Created by: Anthony Torrez