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Common integument

302.3 Vet nursing Common integument (skin, fur and hooves)

2 layers of the skin Epidermis, Dermis
What is the epidermis made of? Stratified squamous epithelium (layered, flat cells)
What is the dermis made of? Dense irregular connective tissue
Tough protective layer of the skin, with no blood supply or nerves. Epidermis
Underlying layer of skin. Well supplied with nerves and blood supply. Contains glands and hair follicles. Dermis
5 layers of the epithilium Stratum corneum, Stratum lucidum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum spinosum, Stratum basale
Outermost layer of epidermis Stratum corneum
Dead cells that make up the stratum corneum. Made of keratin and provide a waterproof covering. Corneocytes
Clear, lipid containing cells and 2nd layer of epidermis. Only found on nose and footpads. Stratum lucidum
3rd layer of the epidermis. The cells begin to die. They are slightly flattened and start to keratinise. Stratum granulosum
4th layer of the epidermis. The cells are still alive and have a spiky appearance. Stratum spinosum
Bottom layer of epidermis. Single layer of cells. Contains melanocytes. Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
Layer of loose connective tissue and fat lying under the dermis Subcutis (hypodermis)
What is hair important for? Warmth and protection (barrier and camoflage)
Hair grows from follicles in which layer of skin? Dermis
Bump of dermis at the bottom of the hair follicle Dermal papilla
The dermal papilla provides what for the growing hair? Blood and nerve supply
The visible part of the hair, above the skin surface Hair shaft
The hidden part of the hair in the follicle Hair root
3 stages of hair growth Anagen, Catagen, Telogen
What is the anagen stage of hair growth? Rapid growth phase
What is the catagen stage of hair growth? Transitional phase
What is the telogen stage of hair growth? Resting phase with no growth
Muscle which makes the hair stand on end Arrector pili muscle
3 types of hair Guard hairs, Wool hairs, Tactile hairs
What are guard hairs? Primary hairs, long outer coat, waterproof
What are wool hairs? Secondary hairs, soft undercoat, numerous
What are tactile hairs? Thick, stiff hairs with good blood and nerve supply. Include whiskers and eyelashes
What do sebaceous glands secrete? Sebum
5 properties of sebum Waterproofs coat, Shiny coat and supple skin, Antiseptic, Pheremone, Helps produce vit D from sunlight
Other name for sweat glands Sudoriferous glands
2 types of sweat gland Apocrine and eccrine
What are apocrine sweat glands? Associated with hair follicles. Contains fat and protein which bacteria eat - BO
What are eccrine sweat glands? Directly on surface of skin. In dogs only on foot pads and nose.
Mammary glands are modified what? Sweat glands
How many pairs of nipples do dogs have? 5
How many pairs of nipples do cats have? 4
How many foot pads are on the front foot? 7
How many foot pads are on the hind foot? 5
Specialised region of the epidermis where claw grows from Coronary border
What is the hoof made from? Tough insensitive epidermal tissue called horn
8 external parts of the hoof Frog, Sole, Bulbs of heel, Seat of corn, Bars, Coronet, White line, Periople
What is the frog of the hoof? Small triangular wedge that plays an important part in blood circulation, absorption of concussion and grip
What is the sole of the hoof? Concave in shape and supports and protects the structures within the foot. Can be susceptible to bruising
What are the bulbs of the hoof? Back of the foot and works with the frog and sole to assisst circulation
What is the seat of corn of the hoof? Point of the sole where bars make an angle with the walls of the hoof
What are the bars of the hoof? Allow for expasion of foot and provide strength
What is the coronet of the hoof? Point from which the horn tissue grows and extends. can take 9-12 months to grow from coronet to tip of hoof.
What is the white line of the hoof? Boundary between internal and external structures of the foot. Used as a guide when nailing shoes on hoof
What is the periople of the hoof? Forms an outer layer to protect hoof from becoming dry and brittle. Covers coronet.
4 internal parts of the hoof Bones, Digital cushion, Lateral cartilages, Corium
What is the digital cushion in the hoof? Wedge shaped structure just above the frog. Fills the space above the heel of the foot. Absorbs concussion and encourages circulation
What are the lateral cartilages? 2 curved discs of cartilage attached to pedal bone. Assist digital cushion to absorb shock and assist circulation
What is the corium of the hoof? Living tissue immediately beneath the hoof wall. Sensitive, vascular dermis. Named according to the parts of the hoof it nourishes.
Created by: 18000305



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