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Location: Trachea, bronchi & bronchioles PROTOSTRONGYLUS
Hosts: Sheep (including bighorn sheep), goats & deer PROTOSTRONGYLUS
L1’s have a pointed tail PROTOSTRONGYLUS
Protostrongylus reported in bighorn sheep Transplacental transmission
Intermediate hosts are snails or slugs Intermediate hosts are snails or slugs
Nodule (adenoma-like) proliferation of the bronchial epithelium has been associated with MUELLERIUS
Meningeal Worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Common and non-pathogenic in white-tailed deer Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Abnormal hosts: Any other ruminant (rarely reported in domestic/wild cattle) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
1912: first recognized in moose in the north central US (“moose sickness”) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Adults reside in the subdural space and venous sinuses beneath the meninges of the brain and spinal cord Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
CSF tap (eosinophilia is a more consistent finding in llama & alpaca) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Elevated total protein, creatine kinase, plasma fibrinogen and RBC’s in the CSF Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Histopathology (larvae in spinal cord) Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
ELISA (white tailed deer, elk and goats) using L3 excretory-secretory antigens Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Larvae will ONLY be found in the feces of white-tailed deer Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Lungworm of Swine METASTRONGYLUS
Adults in bronchi and bronchioles METASTRONGYLUS
Migrating larvae cause verminous pneumonia METASTRONGYLUS
Diagnosis – embryonated, thick-shelled eggs, L1 have blunt tail METASTRONGYLUS
Life cycle: direct, no IH Dictyocaulus
Adults reside in the trachea, bronchi & bronchioles Dictyocaulus
Pathogenesis – verminous pneumonia Dictyocaulus
Diagnosis – adults at necropsy, eggs/larvae in feces, Baermann technique Dictyocaulus
Control – sanitation, irrigation, pasture rotations, improve nutrition and deworming program Dictyocaulus
Unembryonated eggs deposited in the lungs → L1’s develop within the host Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
L3’s develop in the feces ~ 5-7 days (pointed tail; rarely seen in horses Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Patency occurs in donkeys & mules Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Arrested larval development in horses & pathogenic in horses Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
Don’t pasture horses with mules Dictyocaulus arnfieldi
most important lungworm in calves, only nematode that reaches maturity in lungs of cattle D. viviparus
Feces-inhabiting fungus (Pilobulus) disseminates larvae by propelling spores & L3’s - ingested by DH D. viviparus
(in the southeast areas of Europe) D. filaria
(in the northeastern areas of Europe) D. viviparus
Small Animal Lungworms Filaroides = Oslerus
U.S., Europe & Canada Filaroides = Oslerus
L1 (“S” shaped or pointed tail w/kink or bent tail) (PAVE, 2007) Filaroides = Oslerus
L1’s are directly infective to puppies Filaroides = Oslerus
Adults form nodules in the trachea and bronchi of canids (wild & domestic Filaroides = Oslerus
Does not usually cause clinical disease (unless given prednisone & a secondary bacterial infection develops). F. hirthi
Usually a subclinical infection F. hirthi
May cause a focal granulomatous reaction that may resemble drug-induced and neoplastic lesions F. hirthi
Verminous Pneumonia F. hirthi
All 5 molts are completed in the lung tissue of the dog Filaroides species
Auto-infection is common Filaroides species
Severity of disease correlates with the species F. osleri vs. F. hirthi
Ivermectin, fenbendazole Filaroides species
Nodules may reduce in size, but not resolve completely F. osleri
Found in many parts of the world (US, Europe, Australia & Brazil) Aelurostrongylus
Cat Lungworm Aelurostrongylus
Females deposit eggs in “nests” in lung parenchyma Aelurostrongylus
Tail resembles Muellerius with dorsal spine Aelurostrongylus
Cats become infected by eating molluscs or paratenic host (frog or lizard which eat snails/slugs) Aelurostrongylus
small, grayish-white sub-pleural nodules Aelurostrongylus
Coughing, dyspnea, weight loss, bronchopneumonia Aelurostrongylus
Created by: alljacks