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Pharmacology

Nervous System Drugs

QuestionAnswer
This anticholinergic is commonly used as a pre-anesthetic to dry secretions, prevent bradycardia and to slow intestinal movements. atropine
This anti cholinergic is also used frequently with pre-anesthetics because it is very similar to atropine except that it provides longer duration of action and it is more expensive. Glycopyrrolate (Robinul-V)
Pilocarpine, a cholinergic, is used to reduce the intraocular pressure associated with what condition? glaucoma
Metoclopramide (Reglan) is a cholinergic given to animals that are __________________. vomiting
What is the other name for epinephrine? adrenalin
Epinephrine decreases or increases the heart rate? increases
The primary purpose of norepinephrine is to be a vasopressor which means it will do what to the BP? raise it!!
Acepromazine is a tranquilizer that causes vasodilation or vasoconstriction. Which one? vasodilation
The antidote for xylazine toxicity is _______________________. yohimbine (Yobine)
The reversal agent for dexmedetomidine is ______________. Atipamezole (Antisedan)
The beta blocker, propranolol, is used to treat what heart conditions? arrhythmias and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
This drug is a beta blocker used to treat glaucoma. The trade name for it is Timoptic. What is the generic name? Timolol
This tranquilizer is used often in horses but it is also used in cats to induce vomiting. xylazine
What are the three things that xylazine can do when administered? analgesia, sedation, and muscle relaxant
The trade name Rompun is very common for which drug? xylazine
What drug is similar to xylazine and is used as a sedative/analgesic for horses? detomidine
Dormosedan is a trade name for what drug? detomidine
"Kitty Magic" is made up of what three drugs? ketamine, dexmedetomidine, and an opioid such as morphine
What is dexmedetomidine used for in dogs and cats? sedative and analgesic
Sedivet is a sedative used to be able to handle horses. What is the generic name? romifidine
True or False-Barbiturates may be used for euthanasia. true, but can also be used for sedation, anticonvulsants, general anesthesia too!`
Barbiturates depress what body functions? cardiac and pulmonary
Barbiturates are metabolized by what organ? liver
What are the three classifications of barbiturates? long-acting, short-acting, and ultrashort-acting
The barbiturates called phenobarbital is what schedule of controlled substances? IV
Phenobarbital is primarily used to prevent _______________________. seizures
Pentobarbital is used primarily to stop __________________. seizures
What schedule of controlled substances is pentobarbital? II
Is it pentobarbital or phenobarbital that can be used as a euthanasia solution? pentobarbital
What drug can we give to control salivation after we have given ketamine? atropine or glycopyrrolate
Ketamine is classified as what type of agent? dissociative
How do cats respond to ketamine? they can have real stiff legs, eyes remain open, salivation
What drugs are often used with ketamine to help with muscle relaxation? diazepam, xylazine, dexmedetomidine
What schedule drug is ketamine? III
What drug could be used instead of ketamine mixed with a tranquilizer? Tiletamine (Telazol) it has zolazepam in it which helps with muscle relaxation
Opium is produced from what flower? poppy
What are the four opioid receptor classes? Mu, Kappa, Sigma, Delta
What does analgesic mean? pain relieving
What are some of the negative side effects of giving opioids? respiratory depressant, panting, vomiting, gas, defecation
Which organ metabolizes opioids? liver
What schedule II opioid drug is used to treat severe pain, used as a pre-anesthetic or anesthetic? Morphine
What do opioid antagonists do? block the effects of opioids!!!
What are some examples of opioid antagonists? naloxone, nalorphine, butorphanol
What is a neuroleptanalgesic?? an opioid and a tranquilizer
What are neuroleptanalgesics used for? sedation, restraint, and anesthesia
Can a veterinarian mix two drugs and make a neuroleptanalgesic? YES! They can mix acepromazine and morphine, acepromazine and oxymorphone, and xylazine and butorphanol
Why is scavenging of waste from anesthetics important? waste gases are a health hazard to humans; can cause reproductive, hepatic, and renal problems
Why is propofol called "milk of amnesia"? It is white and milky looking and it is an anesthetic.
How is propofol given? IV
Why is propofol great to use for cesarean sections? It does not cross the placental barrier.
What can happen if propofol is given IV too fast? apnea
What species is guaifenesin usually used in? equines
What is guaifenesin used for? muscle relaxer, induce general anesthesia
What are CNS stimulants used for? respiratory depression or arrest
Name one CNS stimulant. CAFFEINE (MY FAVORITE) , DOXAPRAM, AMPHETAMINES-NOT USUALLY USED IN VET MED, PENTYLENETETRAZOL
Dopram, a CNS stimulant, is used for what purpose during a cesarean? to stimulate the newborn to breathe
What route of administration is used when administering Dopram to a newborn? under the tongue and absorbed or in the umbilical vein
What is the term used for muscle relaxants? neuromuscular blocking drugs
What is the purpose in using neuromuscular blocking drugs? adjunct to general anesthesia esp. for ophthalmic or orthopedic surgeries and to aid in endotracheal intubation
What are the five neurotransmitters of clinical importance in behavioral pharmacotherapy? acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and GABA
What is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the body? acetylcholine
What are the three most common benzodiazepines used in veterinary medicine to treat animals with anxiety, fears, phobias, aggression, urine marking and for appetite stimulation? Diazepam (Valium), Alprazolam (Xanax), Lorazepam (Ativan) THESE SOUND FAMILIAR DON'T THEY????
What makes Buspirone different from the other behavioral drugs? it does not provide any muscle relaxation, not an anticonvulsant, nor does it have any sedative effects
What class of antidepressants can be used for separation anxiety, obsessive disorders, fearful aggression, hyperactivity, hypervocalization, and urine marking? tricyclics
What is the main drug that is used for euthanasia? pentobarbital
Fluoxetine is the generic name. What is the trade name for veterinary medicine? Reconcile---Prozac.........people!!
Created by: spoitevint