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The Skeletal System

302.3 Vet nursing The skeletal system

What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system? Movement, Stability, Protection, Storage, Haemopoiesis (new blood cells)
Which type of bone is hard and dense? Compact
Which type of bone is spongy and lighter? Cancellous
What are the 4 bone shapes? Long, short, flat and irregular
Describe long bones (+examples) Longer than they are wide. Contain bone marrow. (most bones of the limbs)
Name of the cavity in long bones filled with bone marrow. Medullary cavity
Describe short bones (+examples) Shaped like small cubes. Core of cancellous bone covered by compact bone. (carpal and tarsal bones)
Describe flat bones (+examples) Relatively thin and flat. (scapula, skull bones, ribs, pelvis)
Describe irregular bones (+examples) Anything not one of the other categories. (vertebrae, sesamoid, patella)
Dense vascular connective tissue surrounding bones Periosteum
Channel in bones for vessels and nerves Nutrient foramen
How do most bones in the body develop? Endochondral ossification
What is endochondral ossification Use of a cartilage model to lay down bone
Where does the bone start growing? Shaft of the bone
Another name for the bone shaft Diaphysis
What cells create new bone? Osteoblasts
What cells break down bone? Osteoclasts
What are the end of the bones called? Epiphysis
Narrow band of cartilage that allows lengthening of the bone in young animals Growth plate
Method of bone formation of skull bones Intramembranous ossification
What is intramembranous ossification? Bone forms between the fibrous tissue membranes that cover the brain in the foetus
What are joint surfaces called? Articular surfaces
Large round articular surface. On the distal end of the humerus and femur Condyle
Spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone Head
Flat articular surface between carpal, tarsal and vertebrae Facet
A hole in a bone (plural) Foramen (foramina)
A depression or sunken are on the surface of a bone. Usually occupied by muscles or tendons Fossa
3 parts of the skeletal system Axial, Appendicular, Splanchnic
What comprises the axial skeleton? Skull, spine to the tip of the tail, ribs and sternum
What comprises the appendicular skeleton? Front and hind limbs, pelvis and shoulder blades
What comprises the splanchnic skeleton? Os penis in most mammals. Os cordis in cows.
3 morphological forms of the dog skull Dolichocephalic (long), Brachycephalic (short), Mesocephalic (normal)
4 parts of the skull Cranium, maxilla, mandible, hyoid apparatus
Where is the cranium of the skull? Upper section which houses the brain
Where is the maxilla on the skull? Upper jaw and nasal cavity
Where is the mandible on the skull? Lower jaw
Where is the hyoid apparatus on the skull? Attaches the larynx to the temporal bone of the cranium
Skull bone that covers most of the cranial cavity Parietal bone
Skull bone that houses the structure of the middle ear Temporal bone
Skull bone that contains the frontal sinus which connects to the nasal cavity Frontal bone
Skull bone that has foramen magnum through which the spinal cord passes Occipital bone
Skull bone that is the floor of the cranial cavity Sphenoid complex
Ridge of bone on dorsal midline of skull Saggital crest
Name for the cheek bone Zygomatic arch
Skull bone where tears drain through to nasal cavity Lacrimal bone
Skull bone which form the sides of the nasal cavity Maxilla
Skull bone which forms the roof of the nasal cavity Nasal bone
Cartilagenous plate which divides the nasal cavity length ways Nasal septum
Fills the nasal cavity (also known as) Nasal turbinates (conchae)
Bone which forms the boundary between the nasal and cranial cavities Ethmoid bone
Which 3 bones form the hard palate? Incisive, palatine, maxilla
Fibrous joints that connect the bones of the skull Sutures
Name for the lower jaw Mandible
Cartilagenous joint that joins the two sides of the mandible Mandibular symphysis
What are the 2 regions the mandible is split into? Vertical ramus and horizontal body
The joint where the skull and mandible articulate Temporomandibular joint
Place of muscle attachment of the temporal muscle on the mandible Coronoid process
Point on the ramus that joins on to the temporal bone Condylar process
What is the purpose of the hyoid apparatus? Supports the base of the tongue, the pharynx and the larynx and helps the animal swallow
What are the 5 regions of the vertebrae? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
Dogs and cats have how many cervical vertebrae? 7
Dogs and cats have how many thoracic vertebrae? 13
Dogs and cats have how many lumbar vertebrae? 7
Dogs and cats have how many sacral vertebrae? 3 (fused)
Dogs and cats have how many coccygeal vertebrae? 20 or more
Name of the first cervical vertebrae? (C1) Atlas
Name of the second cervical vertebrae? (C2) Axis
The bulk of the vertebrae Body
Dorsal projection from the vertebrae Spinous process
Lateral projections from the vertebrae Transverse process
Projection from the vertebrae that forms joints with the adjacent vertebrae Articular process
Top part of the superior articular process on lumbar vertebrae Mamillary process
Hole through which the spinal cord passes through the vertebrae Vertebral foramen
The dorsal region of the vertebrae (not the body) Neural arch
Fibrocartilage discs in between each of the vertebrae Intervertebral discs
Name of the inner core of the intervertebral disc Nucleus pulposus
The tough outer connective tissue of the intervertebral disc Annulus fibrosis
How many pairs of ribs do cats and dogs have? 13
The dorsal part of the ribs is made out of what? Bone
The central part of the ribs is made out of what? Cartilage
What is the cartilage on the central part of the ribs called? Costal cartilage
What is the junction between the bone and cartilage of the ribs called? Costochondral junction
What are ribs 1-8 known as? Sternal ribs
What are ribs 9-12 called? Asternal or false ribs
What are the last pair of ribs (13) called? Floating ribs
What is the space between the ribs called? Intercostal space
How many sternebrae make up the sternum? 8
What is the most cranial sternebrae called? Manubrium
The most caudal sternebrae Xiphoid process
Cartilage that projects caudally from the sternum Xiphoid cartilage
Created by: 18000305



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