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Vet 110 Chapter 3

Life Science Vet 110 Chapter 3

Complex organisms are made up of what? Cells
This can grow, reproduce, adapt, maintain homeostasis, eat and eliminate. Cells
This carries genetic material that determines future development, and specialization Cells
What are Specializations? Variable shapes and adaptions of cells that make them really good at their particular job.
Example of Specializations are...? RBC's and Skeletal muscular fibers
This has no true nucleus, is unicellular, and was the only form of life 1.5 billion years and is usually bacteria. Prokaryotes
This has a true nucleus and is found in all multicellular organisms. Eukaryotes
Do Prokaryotes still make proteins? Yes.
This has a nucleiod region, contains DNA but not an arranged nucleus. Prokaryotes
This can be unicellular or multicellular, has a true nucleus. Eukaryotes
This has ATP and is found in plants and animals Mitochondria
Do smaller cells require less nutrition than larger cells? Yes.
True or False. A small cell with a large surface area can complete its metabolic functions more rapidly, and efficiently than a larger cell. True.
True or False. A single nucleus can control the metabolic activity of smaller cells better than a larger cell. True.
True or False. The more active the cell the greater the metabolic need. True.
This person found out about cells in 1665 while looking at a piece of cork. Robert Hooke
This is a plasma membrane. Plasmalemma
This is the elastic barrier between the inner cytoplasim and everything else. Cell Membrane
Can the Cell Membrane repair itself? Yes, within reason.
These allow passage of water and other molecules with no resistance. Pores.
These are bound to the inside and outside surface of the cell membrane, they do not go all the way thru the cell, can sometimes act as an enzyme or a catalysts, and often are involved in the dramatic changes in morphology Peripheral Proteins
This is a sugar coating on cells and are on the outside and inside of cells. Glycocalyx, glycolipids + glycoproteins
What are Glycoproteins? Sugar and proteins
What are Glycolipids? Sugar and phospholipids
This improves cell to cell adhesion and represents an important biological marker for intercellular recognition and for the interactions between cells and antibodies and viruses Glycocalyx
This is composed of 2 families, the CAM's and Membrane Receptors. Glycocalyx
What are CAM's and where are they located? Cell Adhesion Molecules, outside of cell.
True or false. Glycoproteins DO NOT cover the surface of most all cells. FALSE, They DO cover the surface of most all cells.
These allow them to bond to extracellular molecules and each other. CAM's
True or False. CAM's other function is to communicate to others. True.
This is composed of 2 families, the CAM's and Membrane Receptors. Glycocalyx
What are CAM's and where are they located? Cell Adhesion Molecules, outside of cell.
True or false. Glycoproteins DO NOT cover the surface of most all cells. FALSE, They DO cover the surface of most all cells.
These allow them to bond to extracellular molecules and each other. CAM's
True or False. A CAM's other function is to communicate to other more moble cells. True.
This process is happens when signaling WBC's to come to the rescue in areas of inflammation Chemotaxis
True or False. CAM's are also important in helping cells move past one another and in signaling circulating cells such as WBC'sto areas of inflammation and circulation. True.
These decide what molecules go in and out of the cell. Cell Memrane
These consist of proteins, phospholipids, cholesterol, miscellaneous lipids, and carbs. Cell Membrane
This is not visable under a light mircoscope, it needs an electronscope. Cell Membranes
What are these 2 layers of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) reaction to water? Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic
True or false. Proteins that are suspended in this bilayer can move easily throughout. True.
What is the consistency and complexity of the membrane based on? The function of the cell.
Most of this layer is made up of soluble materials such as O2 and CO 2. Lipid Bilayer
Cholesterol comes into play when these ionized and water soluble molecules which are not lipid soluble and do not pass easily thru. What are the molecules? Amino acids, sugars, and proteins
These are either within the lipid bilayer or on the cell surface. Globular Proteins
These are responsible for special functions. Structural and globular proteins
These proteins go straight thru the cell. Integral proteins
True or False. Those proteins within the lipid bilayer span the entire width of teh membrane and create channels that allow molecules to pass. True.
These consists of Integral and Glycoproteins, acts as binding sites on the cell's surface, and is important for cell to cell recgonition. Membrane Receptors
True or false. Membrane receptors are able to perform contact signaling. This is important during cell mediated immune response and assists bacteria and viruses in finding preferred targets. True.
True or False. When preforming this immune response, membrane receptors assist bacteria and viruses that act as enzymes to activate or inactivate a particular cellular activity. True.
There are BOTH moving 'hair like' structures. Flagella and Cilia
True or False. Flagella and Cilia do the same thing. False. They do different things.
True or False. Flagella and Cilia both are extensions of the plasma membrane. True
True or False. Only Cilia extends into the extracellular space. False. BOTH Cilia and Flagella extend into the extracellular space.
These are composed of 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding 1 pair of microtubules. Flagella and Cilia.
True or False. Both Flagella and Cilia orignate from a pair of basal bodies just under the cell membrane. True.
These are many and live on the surface of the cell. They move all in one motion, one after the other, creatiing waves of motion that propel fluid, mucus, and other debrise. These are seen in the upper and lower reperitory tract. Cilia
This is two functions of Cilia. 1. Clear upper respiratory tract2. Pulling the ovulated egg into the oviduct
This occurs by itself and looks like a tail. Flagella
This moves cells thru fluid. Flagella
An example of this is sperm. Flagella
This is EVERYTHING in a cell, except the nucleus. Cytoplasm
These are the 5 components of cytoplasm. Cytosol, Cytoskeletion, Organelles, Inclusions, and Parabasal Cells.
This is the fluid of the cell. Cytosol
This contains electrolytes, amino acids, and simple sugars. Cytosol
True or false. Proteins are important in metabolic activities in cells. True.
This gives strength and form to the cell and cytosol. Cytoskeleton
This is a 3D frame for the cell, it is supportive but flexable. Cytoskeleton
This anchors the orgenelle. Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is made up of 3 types of fibers, what are they? 1. microtubules2. intermediate fibers3. microfiliments
These are the thickest par of teh protiens, long, hollow tubes that grow outward from the cell centernear the nucleus. Microtubules
These form cables for the mitochondria and lysosomes to anchor. Microtubules
These act as "railroad tracts" for organelle travel and are flexible and are able to form new paths during times of cellular change. Microtubules
These are rope like fibors with high tensile strength. Intermediate fibers
These resist pulling forces in the cell Intermediate Fibers
These are the toughest most permanent part of oteh cytoskeleton. Intermediate Fibers
These can be made of different proteins, and take on different functions depending on teh type of cell in which they are found. Intermediate Fibers
These fibers can take on different names such as tonofilament when referring to epithelial cells or neurofilaments when referring to nerve cells Intermediate Fibers.
These are found on the cell's surface, on the CYTOPLASMIC SIDE of the membrane. Microfilaments
These are arragned in bundles and meshwork. Microfilaments
These are assembled when and where needed the most in cells. Micofilaments
These are really important for shape changes such as cell division. Microfilaments
Depending on the cell activity, these vary in position and quantity within the cell. Microfilaments
There are all the little organs within a cell. Organelles
These are membrane bound structures within the cytoplasm. Organelles
Each of these has it's own independent environment and function. Organelles
These are similar in composition to those in the plasma membrane but do not have glycocalyx coatings. Organelles
True or false. Each organelle is separated from the cytosol and is able to maintain its own internal environment. True
True or false. With organelles, the seperations from the cytosol is crucial for effective metabolic process b/c it enables the cell to separate and control various molecular interactions. True
This is the largest of the ogranelles and is the "powerhouse" of the cell. Mitochondria
This produces 95% of the energy needed to fuel the cell. Mitochondria
True or False. Mitochondria is teh site of biochemical reactions. True.
True or False. With Mitochondria, the amino and fatty acids catabolism (break down). True.
True or False. With Mitochondria, respiratory electrons transport and phosphorylation, the building of the phosopholipid layer in the cell occurs. True.
This is the process when mitochondria divides itself by pinching itself in half when cellular requirements for energy increases. Fission
This is made up of a nuclear envelope, nucleoplasma, chromatin, and nucleoli. Nucleus
True or false. The nucleus is separated from the cytosol by a nuclear envelope or membrane that is made up of one lipid bilayers. False. The nucleus is separated by 2 lipid bilayers
What percentage of the nuclear surface is made up of pores which is the primary means of communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus? 10%
True or False. Due to the size of the nuclear pores, molecules move freely into the nucleus. True
What moves INTO the nucleus from the cytoplasm? Protein molecules
What moves OUT of the nucleus? RNA
This is the space between the bilayers of the nuclear envelope. Preinuclear cisterna
This is like cytosol in a cell but is in the nucleus. Nucleoplasm
These are chains of nucleotides. DNA and RNA
These contain a nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugars, and a phosphate group Nucleotides
This is deoxribonucleic acid. DNA
DNA is in what shape or form? Double helix
This has Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. DNA
This does not contain Uracil. DNA
In DNA these two sugars can only bond with each other. Cytosine and Guanine, Thymine and Adenine
This is Ribonucleic acid RNA
What shape or form does RNA take? Single strand
This has Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil RNA
This does not contain Thymine. RNA
In RNA these two sugars can only bond with each other. Cytosine and Guanine, Uracil and Adenine
These are nucleotides that are linked to form the backbone of alternating sugars and phosphate groups. DNA and RNA
These project out of the "backbone" Nitrogenous bases
This is made up of DNA (Genetic material) and histones (globular proteins). Chromatin
This is made up of 8 units of histone protein and a single strand of DNA. Chromatin
True or False. The DNA strand winds around the histones. True.
This keeps DNA strands organized, exposes different genes at different times to decide what proteins get made, and are responsible for gene regulation. Histones.
This happens when the shape of a gene has changed and the histones are exposed to different genes at different times. Gene Regulation
What determines what proteins will be made by a cell? The exposed genes
True or false. DNA contains all of the important instructions required for synthesis of proteins. True.
These are condensed chromatin that coils into a "X" shape object during cell division (or "Y" shape in males). Chromosomes
These chromatin coils into tight fibers to protect and save space when not being used to make proteins. Chromosomes
These are called extended chromatin when strands of chromatin are active in protein synthesis and become uncoiled. Chromosomes
During cell division what condenses into "X" shaped structures called chromosomes. Chromatin
These are small, dark-staining patches when looked at up close. Nucleoli
True or false. The nucleoli is the site of synthesis of lysosomes. FALSE. Ribosomes subunits
These subunits are released, then assembled in the cytoplasm, what are they called? Functional Ribosomes
True or false. The Nucleoli contains DNA that governs the synthesis of ribosomeal RNA True.
This water that is INSIDE the CELL. Intracellular fluid
This is water that is OUTSIDE the CELL. Extracellular fluid
This is water that is found IN TISSUES, rather than lymph or blood vessels. InterSTITIAL fluid
This is water that is found IN the BLOOD VESSELS or LYMPHATICS. IntraVASCULAR fluid
True or false. The plasma membrane separates the intracellular world from the extracellular world by strictly regulating what substances make it into or out of the cell. True.
These are charged particles Ions.
These are positively (+) charged ions Cations
These are negatively (-) charged ions Anions
Both -/+ ions conduct an electrical current in a solution and they are called what? Electrolytes
What are electrolytes? ALL ions.
These are also electrolytes, they dissociate in water and conduct electrical impulses. They are associated with the pH scale. Acids and Bases.
These release hydrogen ions (H+) when in a solution. Acids
These release hydroxyl ions (OH-) when in a solution. Bases.
These are "Proton Receivers" Bases
These are "Proton Donors" Acids
This pH is ranged 0-7, it has lots of H+ ions and few OH- ions. This has gastric juices in this range as well as beer and pickles. Acidic
This pH range is 7. It contains equal concentration of H+ and OH-. It is what pure water is. Blood is slightly higher. Neutral (7 on pH scale)
True or false. Bodily fluids that are rich in H+ or OH- and their proportion to one another determines the acidity or alkalinity (basic) of the fluid. True.
This pH range is 7-14. It contains few H+ ions and many OH- ions. It contains bleach and over cleaner on it's scale. Alkalinity (Basic)
This is the "Gate Keeper" of what gets in and out of the cell. Cell membrane
This allows some molecules to pass, but not others, the tissue fluids are loaded with electrolytes, fatty acids, vitamins, amino acids (AA), regulatory hormones, and dissolved gasses. Cell Membrane
This is energy in motion. This movement is increase in warmer temps and slower in cooler temps. Kinetic energy.
This is responsible for taking in nutrients, expelling waste, and releasing products produced in the cell. Cell Membrane.
True or false. The cell membrane is selectively permeable, allowing somethings to pass without question, excluding things completely, and letting in other occasionally w/ or w/o an escort. True.
This process does not require ATP, is involved with Facilitated diffusion, (as well as normal diffusion) osmosis, and filtration. Passive Process
This requires ATP, is involved with transport, as well as endocytosis, and exoctosis. Active process
This is the spectrum between the area with the MOST molecules and the are with the FEWEST molecules. Concentration gradient
This is when molecules move from an area of HIGH concentration to LOW concentration, it's movement is DOWN the concentration gradient, and relies on temperature (faster in warmer temps). Diffusion
These 3 variable help decide if this action takes place, size of molecule, solubility, and the molecule's charge. Diffusion
True or false, H20 cal pass through the cellular membrane easily, while glucose cannot. True
These types of molecules are considered what type of solubility? (Alcohol, steroids, oxygen) Lipid solubile
True or false. The charge of the ion can prevent easy passage into the cell membrane. True
There are specialize pores call what that allow certain ions through. (EX. sodium ___, chloride ___, potassium___.) Channels
This allows some large molecules and nonlipid-soluble molecules to pass through the cell membrane. They need the assistance of an integral protein or carrier protein located in the bilayer. Facilitated Diffusion
In this type of diffusion, a molecules outside the cell binds to a carrier protein and then changes its shape so the molecule is able to pass though the membrane to enter the cell. Facilitated Diffusion
This type of diffusion requires no energy. Facilitated Diffusion
This molecule is used when blood sugar becomes high enough that all the carrier proteins are being used. Glucose
True or False. Hormones such as insulin play an important role in controlling the activity of glucose specific carriers and can act on them to slow down their rate of transport. False. The rate of transport SPEEDS up.
This type of diffusion take place when small, lipid-soluble molecules pass through the cell membrane unassisted and it also depends on the concentration gradient. Simple Diffusion
This is a the passive movement in which WATER from an area of lesser concentration moves to an area of higher concentration. Osmosis
True or false. Water moves from the diluted solution to the concentrated solution when two different concentrations of solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane. True
This is the process of which water wants the same concentration of solution on both sides of a semipermeable membrane. Equilibrium
This is the force of water moving from one side of the membrane to the other side. Osmotic Pressure.
This is a certain type of process in which diffusion and osmosis have the same goal. Passive Process
In what process is molecules moving? Diffusion
In what process is water moving? Osmosis
This is when the concentration of extracellular fluid = the concentration of dissolved substances in the intracellular fluid Isotonic
This is the process in which the concentration of extracellular fluid is LESS THAN the intracellular fluid. Hypotonic
This is the process in which the concentration of extracellular fluid is GREATER THAN that of the intracellular fluid Hypertonic
True or false. In Osmosis, the isotonic fluid, moves freely in and out of the cells and the cell stays normal in shape and size. True
True or false. If the extracellular fluid is is hypotonic, water will rush into the cell, the cell will expand and possibly rupture. True.
True or False. If the extracellular fluid is hypertonic, then water will rush out of the cell, the cell will shrink. True.
Is hypotonic and hypertonic good? No.
This is the last passive process. Filtration
This is the force that pushes a liquid. hydrostatic pressure
In animals hydrostatic pressure has a different name, what is it? Blood Pressure
True or false, blood pressure is determined by the lungs? FALSE. It is determined by the heart.
This is based on a pressure gradient rather than a concentration gradient to drive the activity of molecules. Filtration
In what organ is the example of filtration best evident? Kidney
These are examples of what? Water, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Cholrine, and Urea. Diffusion
This is a type of diffusion that requires a protein and it's speed is based on the number of carrier molecules. Facilitated Diffusion
This example is an example of what type of diffusion? Movement of glucose from muscles to fat. Facilitated Diffusion
This is the process in which nutrients are brought in and waste is kicked out. Cytosis
True or Fasle. Cytosis does not require energy. FALSE. It requires ATP
This is the type of cytosis in which matter in going into the cell. Endocytosis
This is the type of cytosis in which matter is going out of the cell. Endocytosis
This process engulfs large particles, liquids, and even other cells. The plasma membrane turns in on itself, engulfs, the particle or liquid, and form a vesicule by closing the cell membrane around it and involves phagocytosis adn pinocytosis. Endocytosis
This is the process known as cell "eating". Phagocytosis
This is a membrane bound vesicle. Phagosome
This is the process called cell "drinking" in which the cell ingests the extracellular fluid. Pincoytosis
These use false feet to enable cells to move throughout the tissues. Pseudopod
This is the process of exporting materials from teh inside of the cell, to the outside of the cell. Exocytosis
This is the process in which waste is produced in the cell. Excretion
This is the process in which there is a exoctosis of manufactured molecules (made molecules). Secretion
This process involves a small unfolding of the plasma membrane. Tiny drops of liquid and particles dissolved, which pinch off from the plasma membrane. Eventually the vesicle breaks down and the liquid spills into the surrounding cytoplasma. Pinocytosis
True or False. Pinocytosis is important in cells lining the small intestine and cells that line the renal tubules in the kidneys. True.
This happens when substance are to be exported are packaged in vesicles by the ER and golgi body. They move through the cytoplasma, fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid. Exocytosis
This is the process in which secretion of mucous by the endothelial cells lining the trachea and in the secretion of hormones by teh adrenal and pituitary glands. Phagocytosis
This is the most obvious example of this process, an allergic reaction and histamines are released from the mast cell. Phagocytosis
True or False. There are charged particles in ALL of the intracellular and extracellular areas of tissues. True.
The distribution of what ions generally maintains homostasis? Sodium (Na+) and Potassium (K+)
With what type of membrane does the cell use to contribute to the distribution of Na+ and K+? Selective Permeable
True or False. When a cell is at rest, the cell is more positive (+) outside than inside? False. While at rest the cell is more + INSIDE than outside.
Na+ and K+ maintain the membrane potential/voltage. There are more potassium ions inside cell. How does K+ move out of the cell? Diffusion via a concentration gradient.
Na+ and K+ maintain the membrane potential/voltage. Sodium is more concentrated on the outside of the cell. What is the phase in which the inflow of Na+ is lower than the outflow of K+? Dipolorization Phase
For every # molecules of Na+ that exit the cell, # of K+ molecules enter. What are the numbers? 3, 2
Life Cycle of the Cell. What two categories of cells that divide? Reproductive Cells and Somatic Cells.
What is the name of the division process that reproductive cells go through? Meiosis
What is the name of the division process that somatic cells go through? Mitosis
What are somatic cells? All cells in the body EXCEPT FOR REPRODUCTIVE cells.
Why is Mitosis needed? For growth and repair
In Mitosis what is the number of cells that a single cell is divided into? 2
What is the name of these 2 cells that a single cell is divided into? Daughter Cells
True or False. Meiosis yields the same number of chromosomes as that of the parent. False. MITOSIS yields the same number of cells as that of the parent.
What is the first phase of cell division in the mitosis process? Interphase
What is the second phase of cell division in the mitosis process? Prophase
What is the third phase of cell division in the mitosis process? Metaphase
What is the fourth phase of cell division in the mitosis process? Anaphase
What is the fifth phase of cell division in the mitosis process? Telophase
What phase is it when cells are between the division phases? Interphase
This is the phase in which the cell grows and matures. Interphase
This phase is = to a metabolic phase Interphase
This phase is further divided into sub phases, growth 1, a synthetic phase, and growth 2. Interphase
In this phase, the nucleus and nucleoli can be seen, the chromatin pattern is loose, and the centrioles are replicating. Interphase
At this subdivision of Interphase, cellular growth and intense metabolic activity is occurring. The number of organelles are doubling and in turn is doubling the cell in size. Growth 1 (G1)
At this subdivision of Interphase, centrioles replicate in anticipation of cell division. G1
At this subdivision of Interphase, DNA replicates and will also synthesize. Histones are formed and made into chromatin to duplicate genetic information. It also progresses faster than G1. Synthetic phase
At this subdivision of Interphase, the synthesis of proteins and enzymes are starting. This stage is very brief and centrioles have finished their replication by the end of this phase. Growth 2 (G2)
In this phase, for cells to divide, copies of DNA must be made, chromosomes are in a more organized arrangement of genetic material. This allows the cell to divide without tangling. Prophase
In this phase, mitotic spindles form with centioles at either end. Prophase
These are protein discs holding the identical chromatids together to make chromosomes. Centomeres
The nuclear envelope has dissolved by the end of this phase. Prophase
In this phase, chromatin strands coil and condense to form chromosomes which are linked as the centromere. A spindle apparatus takes form while the nuclear envelope disintegrates. Prophase
In this phase, chromosomes are lined up in what is called the equator. The metaphase plate is formed by chromosomes evenly spreading apart midway between the opposite ends of the cell. Each centromere attaches to it's own spindle Metaphase
This is formed by chromosomes evenly spreading apart midway between the opposite ends of the cell. Metaphase Plate
In this phase chromosomes link up in the center of the spindle and the centromere of each chromosome is attached to a spindle fiber Metaphase
In this phase, "X" shaped chromosomes are turned into "V" shaped chromosomes. Anaphase
In this phase, centromeres split and each chromatid becomes it's own chromosome. Anaphase
This phase is the shortest phase in the Mitotic phase. Anaphase
In this phase, the chromosomes split. Anaphase
In this phase, chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers to form duplicate sets of chromosomes. The cytoplasm starts to constrict at the metaphysical plate. Anaphase
This is the final stage of Mitosis. Telephase
In this phase, chromosomal movement ends, chromosomes unravel and elongate, returning to the chromatin state. A nuclear envelope surrounds each new set of chromosomes and the cell ultimately pinches itself in half. Telephase
In this phase 2 complete daughter cells are formed and are exact duplicates of the parent cells. Telephase
In this phase, chromatin begins to unravel at the poles of the cell and a nuclear envelope appears. Telephase
This marks the end of telephase. Cytokinesis
This is the reproduction of cytoplasma. Cytokinesis
This is the process between cell division. Interphase
Will cells mostly grow or repair and replace in a young animal? Grow
Will cells mostly grow or repair and replace in an older animal repair and replace
There are three ways a cell knows when to stop growing. Name them. Contact Inhibition, Growth Inhibition Substances, and Cell Checkpoints.
What is cell inhibition? When a cell starts touching other like cells. "Like a crowded room."
What is growth inhibition substances? Chemical messengers that are released from some cells once they reach capacity.
What are cell checkpoints? When cells have to "check in" along their development.
True or false. In cell checkpoints, certain proteins assess the numbers and need of a cell and give permission for division to continue. True.
When enough mitosis has occurred, the proteins in cell checkpoints, are destroyed, stopping cell division. True.
What is protein synthesis? When proteins are form using parts of DNA.
True or false. Protein synthesis begins in the nucleus and then continues in the cytoplasm. True.
This type of RNA carries the important genetic code into the cytoplasm from the DNA in protein synthesis. mRNA
True or False. When mRNA is in play, it hooks up with a lysome. False. Ribosome
True or False. tRNA comes into play carrying amino acids to the ribosome to hook up with bRNA and carries out the synthesis instructions. False. mRNA
True or false. When tRNA is at work, the amino acids it carried are not linked together to make specific proteins. True
True or False. Reproductive cells have the same DNA that gives them the ability to make every protein need. But they don't, the job of each cell is to dictate the proteins they synthesize. False. Somatic Cells, not Reproductive Cells.
These are subunits of DNA. Genes
These are made up of one peptide chain. Genes
What is a PROMOTER(s)? Codes that communicate the beginning of the gene.
What is a TERMINATOR(s)? Codes that communicate the end of the gene.
What is Transcription? The making of mRNA in the nucleus.
This is the enzyme that attaches to a promoter site and opens or unzips the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase
True or False. In transcription, the DNA is now 2 separate stands with the nitrogen groups exposed. As the DNA is unzipped, RNA nucleotides bind at a match nitrogen group on the DNA. True.
True or False. In transcription, RNA nucleotides bond together and form a long chain of tRNA. False. mRNA
True or False. In transcription, when the RNA polymerase reaches the promoter, transcription stops and the mRNA strand is complete. False. Terminator.
What are the codons that are in DNA. A > T G > G
What are the codons that are in RNA. C > G A > U
What are codons? Each group of 3 nucleotides.
This translates to a specific amino acid, the order of these = the order of the amino acids. Codons
These are useless, meaningless codons? Promoters and Terminators (Introns)
What are Exons? Codons that contain useful information.
This is a type of gene that doesn't now what it is. Progene
This is a special type of enzyme that removes the introns and splices together the exons. Spliceosomes
True or false. At the final step in translation mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytosol. True.
Created by: rlayna