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Enterobacteriaceae

bacteria

QuestionAnswer
Enterobacteriaceae gram Gram-negative rods
Enterobacteriaceae oxidase and catalase Oxidase-negative, Catalase-positive
Facultative anaerobes Enterobacteriaceae
Ferment glucose, reduce nitrate to nitrite Enterobacteriaceae
Most are motile by peritrichous flagella Enterobacteriaceae
Enteric bacteria which tolerate bile salts in MacConkey agar Enterobacteriaceae
Variety of clinical infections Enterobacteriaceae
E. coli Salmonella Yersenia Major enteric and systemic pathogens
Proteus Enterobacter Klebsiella othe Opportunistic pathogens
Found in the intestinal tract of animals and humans Enterobacteriaceae
Contaminate vegetation, soil and water Enterobacteriaceae
Major pathogens E. coli, Salmonella sp. and Yersinia sp
are involved in localized infections in diverse anatomical locations Opportunistic pathogens
Gram-negative, short rods E. coli
Most strains are motile by peritrichous flagella E. coli
Often fimbriate E. coli
A capsule is often present --- mucoid E. coli
Grows well on a variety of media at 37 oC E. coli
Characteristic growth on EMB (metallic sheen E. coli
E. coli
on-spore-forming E. coli
Ferments lactose (pink colonies in MacConkey agar E. coli
E. coli are serotyped on the basis of lipopolysaccharide
lipopolysaccharide “O” (Somatic), “H” (Flagellar) and “K” (Capsular
possesses non-flagellar appendages called pilli. E. coli
pilli. Important types K88 or F4, K99 or F5, and 987P or F6
are almost always associated with isolates from swine K88 and 987P
associated with isolates from cattle, sheep, swine K99
Occurs due to the colonization of the intestinal tract from environmental sources, shortly after birth Colibacillosis in mammals
Colibacillosis as a primary infection by shell penetration, inhalation in the hatchery & occurs during the first few days of age
Colibacillosis as a secondary infection complicating agent during the growing period
Occurs due to the colonization of the intestinal tract from environmental sources, shortly after birth Colibacillosis in mammals
the mechanism of pathogenesis Based on (1) Tissue localization of E.coli and (2) Biological activity of E.coli toxin
Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) strain that causes Enteric colibacillosis and Enterotoxemic colibacillosis
strain that cause Local invasive colibacillosis Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC)
strain that cause Septicemic colibacillosis Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC)
strain that cause Hemorrhagic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) in children Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC)
Causes diarrhea in animals 2 weeks to 1 month of age Enteric colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Produce Enterotoxins (Exotoxins): 1. Heat-labile (LT) type (Immunogenic) and 2. Heat-stable (ST) type (Non-immunogenic) Enteric colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Produce Pilus antigens (K antigens), important for adherence & colonization Enteric colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Causes Neonatal diarrhea in animals less than 1 week of age Enterotoxemic colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Produce Enterotoxins (Exotoxins): 1. Heat-labile (LT) type (Immunogenic) and 2. Heat-stable (ST) type (Non-immunogenic Enterotoxemic colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Produce pilus antigens (K antigens Enterotoxemic colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
K antigens involved in Neonatal diarrhea: K88 (piglets) and K99 (calves Enterotoxemic colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
There is absorption of toxins Enterotoxemic colibacillosis caused by (ETEC
Causes Local invasive colibacillosis Enteropathogenic Colibacillosis caused by (EPEC
Local invasion and destruction of intestinal epithelium by E.coli ( invade beyond epithelium to the lamina propria Enteropathogenic Colibacillosis caused by (EPEC
Not enterotoxigenic (do not produce enterotoxins) and do not become bacteremic or septicemic (do not produce endotoxin) Enteropathogenic Colibacillosis caused by (EPEC
Diarrhea is associated with colonization, attachment and destruction of microvilli Enteropathogenic Colibacillosis caused by (EPEC
Mechanism of invasion not known Enteropathogenic Colibacillosis caused by (EPEC
Associated with bacteremia or septicemia Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
Endotoxin-mediated Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
May or may not have diarrhea or intestinal lesions Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
Enters thru respiratory or intestinal tract Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
Multiply in blood or tissue Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
Fibrinopurulent systemic lesions in different organs such as pericardium, liver and heart Septicemic colibacillosis (Colisepticemia) caused by (EIEC
are present in E. coli similar to many other Gram- negative bacteria Endotoxins
They are part of the outer layer of the cell wall. Embedded in the outer membrane of the cell Endotoxins
It is a complex phospholipids-polysaccharide-protein macromolecule Endotoxins
Endotoxins are released in soluble form during bacterial growth and liberated when bacteria lyse Endotoxins
They are less toxic than exotoxins Endotoxins
Pyrogenic Endotoxins
Causes leucopenia, hypotension Endotoxins
Complement activation Endotoxins
Intravascular coagulation Endotoxins
Death Endotoxins
also produce EXOTOXINS Certain strains of E. coli (ETEC
Certain strains of E. coli (ETEC) also produce EXOTOXINS Two types Heat-labile and Heat-stable exotoxin
Large immunogenic portion Heat labile type
Non-immunogenic Heat stable type
These exotoxins are produced in the intestines ENTEROTOXINS
They attach to different receptors on the intestinal epithelium ENTEROTOXINS
ENTEROTOXINS activate adenylate cyclase which results in increased cAMP
The increased cAMP causes hyper secretion of water and chlorides into the gut lumen resulting in fluid loss
Very soon after birth a neonate ingests E. coli
may inhibit the sudden and abnormal rate of multiplication of these organisms in the intestines Colostrum
should receive 50 ml to 80 ml (or 5% body weight) colostrum/kg body weight within the first 12 hours of birth. Repeat 18 to 20 hours Calves
can be frozen for several months, with almost no deterioration Colostrum
Thaw in lukewarm water before you use frozen Colostrum
Occurs in calves under 2 weeks but has been seen in calves up to a month old Enteric colibacillosis (ETEC): E.coli with K99 pili
Typically occurs in calves 4 to 5 days old Septicemic colibacillosis or colisepticemia (EIEC
Excess fluid in the intestineDiarrhea for several daysMucus present Enteric colibacillosis (ETEC): E.coli with K99 pili
Septicemic colibacillosis or colisepticemia (EIEC E. coli infections in Cattle
there is no scouring. In most acute cases there may be no temperature as the septicemia is overwhelming In acute colisepticemia
is associated with cases of acute mastitis bovine E. coli
Usually associated with poor sanitation Bovine Mastitis
One or more quarters of the udder become swollen and painful Bovine Mastitis
High temperature, 103 to 108 oF Bovine Mastitis
Milk production falls rapidly and may cease Bovine Mastitis
Vaccines usually contains E.coli, Streptococcus sp. & Staphylococcus sp Bovine Mastitis
Pigs are susceptible to disease during the first 14 weeks or so after birth E. coli
E. coli infection in Pigs Various names have been given to these conditions according to the age, symptoms and lesions
1 to 12 days of age Neonatal colibacillosis/Piglet scours
Diarrhea, dehydration with high mortality - 70% Neonatal colibacillosis/Piglet scours
Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
Occurs at about 1 week after weaning Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
An acute, highly fatal neurological disorder Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
The disease is dependent upon colonization of small intestine by E. coli that produces a toxin Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
staggering gait, muscular tremors & spasms, edema of eyelids, subcutaneous sub-serosal edema Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
All edema producing E. coli produce hemolysin and have K88 pili antigens Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
Toxin causes arterial degeneration and increased vascular permeability Edema disease (Post-weaning colibacillosis) E. coli enterotoxemia (ETEC
Yolk sac of embryos is the center of infection E.coli infection in Poultry
Occurs in all types and age groups of poultry E. coli infection
Associated with dusty litter Airsacculitis
Navel infection Omphalitis
A variety of syndromes from which E. coli has been isolated Enteritis Coligranuloma Synovitis and arthritis
A new disease of racing greyhounds ” caused by O157:H7 strain Alabama Rot
Lactose fermenter, non hemolytic Enterobacter
Found widely in nature Enterobacter
is the species of veterinary importance Enterobacter aerogenes
They are opportunistic pathogens Enterobacter
can be associated with mastitis in cows and sows Enterobacter aerogenes
Lactose fermenter, non hemolytic Klebsiella
Opportunistic pathogenHas a large polysaccharide capsule Klebsiella
Associated with mastitis in cattle, cervicitis and endometritis in mares Klebsiella
pneumonia in calves and foals and urinary tract infections in dogs Klebsiella
Lactose non-fermenter Proteus
Motile, characteristic swarming on blood agar and non- hemolytic Proteus
Hydrolyze urea. Deaminate phenylalanine and produce H2S Proteus
Otitis externa in dogs Proteus
are the species of veterinary importance. Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris
in dogs and horses Urinary tract infections are frequently caused by Proteus
Gram negative rods, oxidase negative Klebsiella
Blood agar: Large, wet mucoid, whitish-grey Klebsiella
MacConkey agar: Pink, slimy coalescing, not surrounded by red haze (D/D: E.coli Klebsiella
Metritis and cervicitis in mares K. pneumoniae
Pneumonia and suppurative lesions in calves and foals; Mastitis in cows on wood shavings and sawdust; Urinary tract infections in dogs Klebsiella
Treatment: Amoxicillin-Clavulanate, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfonamide Klebsiella
Susceptibility test recommended Klebsiella
Gram negative coccobacilli, non-hemolytic, slow growth in MacConkey Yersenia
are important human and animal pathogens Y. enterocolitica, Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis
causes enteric red-mouth of fish & infection usually results in hemorrhagic septicemia Y. ruckeri
causative agent of human plague. (Cats are infected most frequently than other domestic animals --- source of infection to humans Y. pestis
human enteric pathogen Y. enterocolitica
enteric (wild & domestic animals & septicemic (cage birds & laboratory rodents Y. pseudotuberculosis
Created by: alljacks