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Quiz Two

Large, Gram-positive rods Clostridium
Produce endospores Clostridium
Anaerobic Clostridium
Catalase-negative, oxidase-negative Clostridium
Enriched media required for growth Clostridium
Motile (except C. perfringens Clostridium
Present in soil & alimentary tracts of animals & in feces Clostridium
Neurotoxic Clostridia Clostridium tetaniClostridium botulinum (types A - G)
Causative agent of tetanus Clostridium tetani
Straight, slender, anaerobic, Gm +ve rod with special terminal endospores, giving characteristic “drumstick” appearance Clostridium tetani
Endospores resistant to chemicals & boiling but killed by autoclaving at 121 deg. C for 15 mins Clostridium tetani
Has swarming growth & hemolytic on blood agar Clostridium tetani
Ten serologic types based on flagellar antigens Clostridium tetani
Cross-neutralizing antibodies to neurotoxins between all serotypes Clostridium tetani
Infection occurs by entry of endospores into traumatized tissues (abrasions & wounds Clostridium tetani
Mode of action is by synaptic inhibition Clostridium tetani
Incubation period is 5 to 7 days, may extend to 3 weeks Clostridium tetani
Clinical effects of neurotoxins are similar in all domestic animals Clostridium tetani
Nature & severity of clinical signs are dependent on anatomical site of the replicating bacteria, amount of toxin produced & species susceptibility Clostridium tetani
Clinical signs include stiffness, localized spasms, altered facial expression, spasm of mastigatory muscles (“lock jaw”), generalized muscle stiffness (“saw-horse”) stance, especially in horses Clostridium tetani
Recovered animals are not necessarily immune (toxin concentration that induce clinical disease is usually below threshold required to stimulate production of neutralizing antibodies Clostridium tetani
Serious & fatal disease Botulism
cause most outbreaks in domestic animals C. botulinum types C and D
Inactivated by boiling for 20mins C. botulinum
Gm +ve rod with sub-terminal endospores C. botulinum
Occurs most commonly in waterfowl, cattle, horses, sheep, mink, poultry & farmed fish C. botulinum
Pigs & dogs are relatively resistant & rare in domestic cats C. botulinum
Poor quality baled silage & silage or hay containing rodent carcasses have been linked to outbreaks in horses & ruminants C. botulinum
the most potent biological toxin known Neurotoxins of C. botulinum
C. botulinum Mode of action is by inhibition of neuro-muscular transmission
Botulism Clinical signs Develops 3 to 17 days after ingestion of toxin in all species of animals
Acute disease of cattle & sheep caused by C. chauvoei Blackleg
bomasitis in sheep caused by C. septicum Braxy
Manifests as cellulitis with minimal gas gangrene & gas formation Malignant edema
Acute disease affecting sheep & occasionally cattle, caused by C. novyi type B Infectious necrotic hepatitis
Occurs primarily in cattle & occasionally in sheep, caused by C. haemolyticum Bacillary hemogl
Neuro disorder in newborn foals under 2 months, due to stress in dam, high level of corticosteroids in milk, high mortality Shaker foal symptom
Cattle & Sheep: Gangrenous cellulitis & myositis caused by exotoxins, leading to rapid death Blackleg
Large muscle masses of limbs, back & neck are frequently affected Blackleg
Manifests as cellulitis with minimal gas gangrene & gas formation Malignant edema
Clinical features of toxemia are similar to malignant edema Gas gangrene
Hemoglobinuria: major clinical feature as a result of extensive red cell destruction Bacillary hemogl
Histotoxic clostridia Vaccination: Adjuvanted bacterin & toxoid is most effective
is the causative agent of Gas gangrene in human & domestic animals. C. perfringens type A
C. perfringens type B Lamb dysentery
Many animals die suddenly & high susceptibility of this group is attributed to the absence of microbial competition and the low proteolytic activity in the neonatal intestine C. perfringens type B
Occurs in sheep at pasture, usually manifests as sudden death perfringens type C:perfringens type C
Sudden death in goats & feedlot catle Clostridia
Necrotic enteritis in chickens Enteropathogenic & Enterotoxaemia-producing Clostridia
Haemorrhagic enteritis in neonatal pigs Enteropathogenic & Enterotoxaemia-producing Clostridia
Neuro disorder in newborn foals under 2 months, due to stress in dam, high level of corticosteroids in milk, high mortality Shaker foal symptom
Vax available immunize dam and passive transfer of neutralizing antitoxin to foal, or give antitoxin serum to foal
Created by: alljacks