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Nursing care

311.5 Vet nursing nursing care of medical patients

What does holistic care mean? Considering and treating the patient as a whole
What chronic illness may older patients suffer from which will influence how nursing care should be provided? Arthritis, deaf, blind, diabetes, dementia, dental disease, reduced urinary continence
What additional nursing care could be provided to geriatric patients? More blankets, more attention, warmer kennel, special diet, announce presence, more meds for pain, find out daily routine
When is the neonatal period of puppies and kittens? The first week to 10 days
What risks do neonates face? Hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, no immune system,
How long does the dam produce colostrum for? The first day or 2 after whelping
What is colostrum? The first milk produced by the dam. It contains maternal antibodies, nutrients, vitamins and electrolytes essential for the neonates
When hand feeding neonates, how often should they be fed? Every 2-3 hours in the first week, increasing to 6-8 hours by 4 weeks
What temperature should the milk be warmed to? 37-38oC
What age should solid food be introduced? 3-4 weeks of age. Mix with milk and gradually thickened until 6 weeks
How is urination and defecation initiated in hand reared neonates? A warm moist piece of cotton wool is used to wipe the perineum to stimulate them to urinate and defecate.
How often should neonates be weighed? Daily
How much weight should neonates put on each day? 5-10% per day. By day 10-12 they should weigh double their birth weight
What is diabetes mellitus? Relative or absolute deficiency of insulin. Glucose can't be transported from the blood stream to the cells
What are the signs of hypoglycaemia? Shivering and ataxia, weakness, disorientation
What blood glucose level indicates hypoglycaemia? 3.3mmol/l or lower
How can you help a patient suffering from hypoglycaemia? Offer a meal, glucose powder, glycogen, honey, IV glucose
What is a glucose curve? A patients blood glucose being measured every 2-3 hours to ensure their diabetes is controlled
How should insulin be stored? Upright in the fridge
What route is insulin administered? SC
Why should you record a diabetes patient's weight daily? Good indication of how controlled their diabetes is. Low insulin-lose weight
What is congestive heart failure? Heart not pumping properly
How is CHF usually diagnosed? Fluid collecting around lungs and in abdomen, show up white in x-ray. Lethargic and difficulty breathing. Enlarged heart pressing on trachea which can cause coughing.
Nursing care for CHF? little stress, out to toilet often (diuretics) but little exercise, keep warm, monitor cardiac output.
Some causes of hepatic disease? Drugs (paracetamol), Bacterial infection (lepto), diet, Viral infection (adenovirus), tumours, metabolic (diabetes/cushing's), congenital (portosystemic shunt)
Nursing care for hepatic patients? Stress-free, cage rest, abdominal pain, assisted feeding (not high protein), monitor for hepatic encephalopathy
Signs of hepatic encephalopathy? Head pressing, ataxia, seizures
Causes of renal disease? Lily poisoning, heavy metal poisoning, NSAID, antifreeze, kidney stones. Also common in older cats
Clinical signs in renal disease PUPD, depression, reduced appetite, weight loss, oral ulceration, vomiting
Nursing care for renal patients? stress-free, IVFT, monitor urine output, hydration level, assisted feeding, keep warm
What is pancreatitis? Inflammation of the pancreas. leaking digestive enzymes into the abdominal cavity
Signs of pancreatitis? Vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, possible prayer position, anorexia, depression
Nursing care for pancreatic patient? Keep comfortable, pain relief, tempted to eat little and often, monitor urine for glucose
What are seizures? Altered electrical activity in the brain. Symptom of a disease, not a diagnosis
How long do seizures normally last? No more than 3 minutes
3 stages of a seizure Preictal, ictal, post-ictal
What is the preictal stage? Before the seizure. May become restless, whine or tremble
What is the ictal stage? Actual seizure itself
What is the post-ictal stage Period after seizure. Usually quite confused/disorientated. may be temporarily blind. can last from minutes to hours+
Nursing care for seizure patient? Very quiet, minimal stimulation, keep dark, IV catheter, doses for anti-seizure meds calculated and attached to front of kennel, record duration and severity of convulsion, keep dry and clean
Created by: 18000305