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Admin of Meds

311.6 Vet nursing administration of medication

QuestionAnswer
What are the 4 methods of administration of medication? Oral, Rectal, Parenteral, Topical
What is parenteral administration? Any injection
Legally, who in practice is allowed to administer medications to animals? RVN, VS, SVN under supervision. Must be under the direction of a VS
When might oral medication be contraindicated? Maxillofacial trauma, vomiting, aggressive patient, patient with respiratory compromise
What is the order of speed of rate of absorption of administration methods? (fastest to slowest) IV - IM - SC - Oral
Name 5 methods of administering oral medication Tablets, Capsules, Powder, Granules, Liquid
What is a potential complication of administering oral medication to a patient, especially liquid medication? Aspiration pneumonia
What are the potential risks to the handler when administering oral medication? Scratches, bites, absorbing the drug through the skin
What additional precautions are required when using cytotoxic drugs? Full PPE including gowns, masks and hair nets. Proper disposal of all items in purple topped bins.
What must be considered before administering oral medication? Whether the medication may be mixed with food, whether the medication can be crushed, whether the medication is palatable, whether the patient is eating
What are the methods for rectal administration of medication? Liquid, creams, lotions and ointments either externally or internally as an enema, and medication mixed with wax to form suppositories.
Why are rectal medications administered? To have a local effect on the rectum, to have a systemic effect if a patient can't be given medication orally, parenterally, or topically
When must rectal medication be used with caution? In the cardiac patient with arrhythmia as insertion can cause stimulation of the vagus nerve. In patients with undiagnosed abdominal pain and in patients who have undergone surgery on the rectum, bowel or prostate.
What can stimulation of the vagus nerve cause? Arrhythmia such as bradycardia.
Enemas can be given to foals to aid passage of what? Meconium
What is meconium? The first faeces passed by a foal after birth
When administering medication via a parenteral route why must an aseptic technique be maintained? To prevent contamination of the medication, to prevent the spread of infection and to prevent any potential complications for the patient
Where is a subcutaneous injection administered? In to the fatty layer under the skin
How long does absorption take using the SC route? 35-45 minutes
What must be considered before administering SC medication? That the medication is non-irritant and won't damage the skin tissues (cytotoxic drugs should only ever be IV),
What area of skin is used for a SC injection in small mammals? Dorsal body, usually the "scruff"
What area of skin is used for a SC injection in birds? Fold of skin in the inguinal area. Precrural fold
What area of skin is used for a SC injection in reptiles? Loose lateral skin over the ribs
What area of skin is used for a SC injection in large mammals? Neck
How long does absorption take using the IM route? 20-30 minutes
Where is an intramuscular injection administered? In a large muscle group
Which muscles are used for an IM injection in mammals? Quadriceps femoris or Lumbar epaxial
Which muscles are used for an IM injection in reptiles? Triceps or biceps
Which muscles are used for an IM injection in birds? Pectoral muscles
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in birds? 0.1ml in finches and 1.0ml in macaws
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in rats? 0.1 mL
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in rabbits? 1.5ml
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in horses? 15ml
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in dogs? 5ml
What is the maximum volume that can be administered IM in a single site in cats? 2ml
What are the potential complications of administering IM medication? Pain, nerve damage, tissue necrosis, bruising
Where is an intravenous injection administered? Into a selected vein
How long does adsorption take using the IV route? 0-2 minutes
What are the 3 main IV injection sites in mammals? Cephalic, saphenous, jugular
Other than the main 3 sites, what other site can be used for IV, but it is very painful? Lingual vein
What are 6 potential complications of administering IV medication? Haematoma, haemorrhage, embolism (air in the vein), phlebitis (inflammation of the vein), extra-vascular administration (miss the vein), arterial administration
Where are topical medications administered? Directly to the skin or mucous membranes. Includes medication applied to the ears, eyes and nose
What are the potential risks to the handler when administering topical medication? Absorption of the medication through the handlers own skin
What are the common signs of an allergic reaction to a drug? Swelling of the eyelids and face, hives and facial itching (or pawing at the face). Can progress to vomiting, difficulty breathing, weakness and collapsing
What are the potential problems associated with IV catheter placement? Phlebitis, infection of soft tissue or blood, embolism, self mutilation, catheter becomes blocked, perivascular infusion, blood clot
What can be done to reduce complications with an IV catheter? Should be placed and cared for aseptically, regular monitoring of the animal and the catheter site, regular flushing of the catheter, change catheter at appropriate intervals (3 days)
Created by: 18000305