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Genetics

304.4 Vet nursing genetics

QuestionAnswer
What is a fertilised ovum called? Zygote
Genetics is the study of what? Inheritance
The basic unit of hereditary expression? Gene
How many characteristics does a single gene influence? One
What are polygenic characteristics? A characteristic influenced by multiple genes
What do you call a long string of genes? Chromosome
The position of a gene on a chromosome Locus
Identifying the locus of each gene on every chromosome on the cell Gene mapping
A gene on the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes Allele
A pair of identical alleles Homozygous genes
A pair of non-identical alleles Heterozygous genes
A gene which overrides its allele Dominant gene
A gene which is only expressed when in a homozygous pair Recessive gene
Alleles giving different instructions for a gene which are both expressed (eg blood type) Co-dominant gene
Genes which suppress the activity of other genes (eg albinism) Epistasis
The external appearance of an animal Phenotype
The genetic makeup of an animal Genotype
4 things that may affect the animals phenotype? Diet, environment, disease, lifestyle
Number of pairs of chromosomes in the dog 39
Number of pairs of chromosomes in the cat 19
Number of pairs of chromosomes in the human 23
Number of pairs of chromosomes in the horse 32
Name for the chromosomes which are not sex cells Autosomes
The only pair of chromosomes which may not be homologous Sex chromosomes
Mendel's first law of inheritance The law of segregation
Mendel's second law of inheritance The law of independent assortment
What is the law of segregation? During meiosis each gamete only gets one allele from each gene
What is the law of independent assortment? Genes for different genes are not linked during meiosis
Mendel's third law of inheritance The law of dominance
What is the law of dominance? Recessive alleles will always be masked by dominant alleles
What is a sex linked gene? Genes located on the sex chromosomes
Which sex is more likely to show a sex linked genetic problem? Males
What is a sex limited gene? Genes which are switched on or off by reproductive hormones
What are lethal genes? Genes incompatible with life
What is a classically lethal gene? The animal dies in the womb or shortly after birth
What is a delayed lethal gene? Die from a progressive condition later in life
Semi-lethal gene Mild abnormalities which may not necessarily kill the animal
What is a congenital defect? Defect present in the animal at birth
Name of the zygote from 0-35 days of age Embryo
The fusion of gametes to form a new organism Fertilisation
Created by: 18000305