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Vet 110 Chapter 2

Life Science Vet 110 Chapter 2

What is Matter? Matter is almost everything. If it takes up space and has mass, then it is matter.
What 3 catagories is Matter divided into? Solid, Liquid, and Gas.
What are the parts that make up matter, which cannot be broken down into units of another substance by normal chemical methods? Elements.
What is an Atom? An Atom is the smallest subdivision of any element that still has the properties of that element.
What three things do Atoms contain? Proton, Neutrons, and Electrons.
What are the characteristics of a Proton? Has a positive charge, has an atomic mass of 1, and lives in the center of the atom.
What are the characterisitcs of a Neutron? Has a neutral charge, has an atomic mass of 1, and lives in the center of the atom with the Proton.
What are the characterisitics of an Electron? Has a negative charge, has virtually no mass, and circules around the nucleus the whole time.
What is the Atomic Nucleus of an Atom? A cluster of protons and neutrons.
What is Atomic Weight? This weight is determined by the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. (Example: 2 protons + 2 neutrons = an atomic weight of 4.)
This is the number of protons in an atom. Atomic Number.
If an atom should GAIN or LOSE electrons, it then has a "charge" (can be positive or negative). This charge makes an atom what? And Ion.
This is what a positive charged ion is called. Cation (Example: Sodium, Calcium, and potassium)
An Anion is what? A negative charged ion. (Example: Chloride)
This is two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond, these could be the same atoms joined together as in O2, or could be different atoms joined together. What is a Molecule?
Chemical bonding is the formation of molecules by putting together atoms? True
In chemical bonding atoms DO NOT share electons to form a bond. False, atoms DO share electrons when forming a bond.
Atoms prefer to have complete electron shells, so those without complete electron shells would give away or receive electrons to become more stable. True
If they have an incomplete electron shell, atoms will try to fill the shell by gaining more electrons or by giving up a shell by giving away electrons in order to become stable. True
Name 1 of the 3 types of chemical bonds. Covalent Bonds (or ionic, or hydrogen bonds)
Name 1 of the 3 types of chemical bonds. Ionic Bonds (or Covalent Bonds, or hydrogen bonds)
Name 1 of the 3 types of chemical bonds. Hydrogen Bonds (or Covalent bonds, or ionic bonds)
What is a Covalent Bond? A Covalent Bond is when atoms share electrons. The electron shares part of it's time in the outer electron shell of one atom and the rest of it's time in the outer electron shell of another atom.
What is an Ionic Bond? An Ionic Bond is when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
What are the two types of atoms in an Ionic Bond? 1. Atoms with fewer than 2 electrons in their outer shell. 2. Atoms with nearly full outer shells.
This bond is a specific type of weak ionic bond. They are formed mostly between molecules between water molecules. This bond acts to stabilize the solution. Hydrogen Bond.
True or False. Hydrogen bonds can form between parts of the same molecules. This works to stabilized and hold the shape of large, complex molecules such as ones with protein and DNA. True.
The making and breaking of bonds is called what? Chemical Reactions.
The outcome of the reactant adding together is called what? Product.
Chemical Equation? ???
3 types of reactions are? Synthesis, Decomposition, and Exchange Reactions.
Synthesis is the process of adding together chemicals to make 1 complex chemical and it takes energy. True.
What does the subscript number to the right of the element mean? The number of atoms that are in the element.
Decomposition is what? The opposite of synthesis. It is where one complex molecule is made up of multiple simple molecules. It also release energy.
When talking about decomposition what does the number on the left indicate? The number of molecules.
What is Exchange? The cross between synthesis and decomposition. Atoms within the molecules "switch places". There is no energy used up or released.
1 of the 3 factors involved in reactions are? Temperature (Concentration or Catalysts)
1 of the 3 factors involved in reactions are? Concentration (Temperature or Catalysts)
1 of the 3 factors involved in reactions are? Catalyst (Temperature or Concentration)
When temperature is involved with reactions what is the general rule? The hotter it is, the more stuff happens.
When concentration is involved with reactions what is the general rule? The more reactants bouncing around the more likely they are to contact each other.
When catalyst is involved with reactions what is the general rule? It is usually an enzyme. The catalyst basically keeps the reactants touching each other so they can react.
Organic molecule contain what? A hydrocarbon "C" and are proteins, fats, and carbs.
An Inorganic compound contains what? Doesn't have a hydrocarbon and are salt, H2O, acids and bases.
A solvent is what? A liquid in which a solute dissolves.
A solute is what? Particles/substances that will dissolve in a solvent, like water.
What is a solution? A solvent + a solute.
The Universal Solvent is what? Water.
What is a water molecule composed of? 1 oxygen atom that is covalently bonded with 2 hydrogen atoms. It has a slight positive charge in the area of the H atom and a slight negative charge in the area of the O atom.
True or false, water molecules surround molecules of a solute. True.
True or false, The negatively charged ends of water surround positively charged molecules forming a layer of water around each molecule. True.
Hydrophilic means? Water loving, things that disperse and dissolve easily in water (most things).
Hydrophobic means? Water hating. Things that bunch together, usually fats and oils.
Water is the universal solvent what are some other properties of water? Slightly Polar (one positive end and one negative end).
Water is the great means of transport, substance can be carried safely, easily, effectiely, and almost anywhere dissolved in water. True
Water has a high heat of vaporization. It has a great capacity for absorbing heat and remaining a liquid at high temps. This helps bodies maintain ideal internal temps. True
Water remain a liquid through a large spectrum of temps. True
Water is an excellent lubricant it is around the lung tissues, in the joints, around the heart, and in the GI tract. True.
A mineral often found in the body is? Salt.
Salt can ionize quickly in water. What does this mean? Break up into individual ions.
What are electrolytes? Salts in ionic form and have a charge.
Electrolytes are important for what? Muscle contraction, heart function, blood clotting, nerve conduction, and bone formation.
What are Acids? Elements easily ionized in water, give off H+ (hydrogen) ions, and are considered a 'proton donor', also has a low pH
What are Bases? They ionize in water by releasing OH- (hydroxyl) ions, are considered a 'proton acceptor', substances that are basic (like bleach) are considered to be alkaline, bases have high pH.
The pH scale does what? Measure how basic or acidic a material is.
What number on the scale is considered neutral? 7
If there is a number lower than 7 on the pH scale what does that mean? The element is acidic.
If there is a number higher than 7 on the pH scale what does that mean? Then the element is basic.
Buffers are what? Weak bases and weak acids. They don't ionize as completely as stronger acids adn bases when in a solution.
What is the function of a buffer? The function of a buffer is to keep pH of a solution closer to neutral.
True or false. As chemical reactions happen in teh body, strong acids and bases are formed and could do harm if not for buffers. True.
What are the charsiterics of Organic Molecules? Contain Carbon (C) which likes to bond with four different things at once. Can form rings, long or short chains or branches. Are carbs, fats, nucleic acids and proteins.
What are carbs and their function? Carbon + water. It's function is energy.
Saccharides are what? Carbohydrates.
Monosaccharides are what? 1 carb.
Disaccharides are what? 2 carbs.
Polysaccharides are what? Many carbs.
The process of joining two or more things while removing water is called what? Dehydration Synthesis
What is Hydrolysis? Using water in a decomposition reaction to break a more complex item into 2 or more simpler items.
The use of synthesis reactions to build useful molecules is call what? Anabolism
The process of using decomposition reactions to break down molecules is called? Catabolism
What are some types of MONO carbohydrates? Glucose, Fructose, and Galatose
What are some examples of DI carbohydrates? (MONO + MONO) Sucrose, Maltose, Isomaltose, and Latose which are formed by dehydration synthesis.
The combination of glucose and frutose make what? Sucrose (Table Sugar)
When two monosaccharides are joined together the reactionis a synthesis reaction and a diaccharide is formed. Because water is created during the reaction - it is extracted from the saccharides = what occurs? Dehydration Synthesis
Polysaccharides are what? MANY Carbs. Sugar is combined by dehydration synthesis. They are used for energy or structure. Examples are Starches, celluose, and glycogn
Carbohydrate Metabolism is what? When anabolic and catabolic process are used involving carbohydrates.
When cells use synthesis reactions to build molecules needed for cellular functions is called? Anabolic Process.
What happens with the catabolic process? Nutrients are decomposed.
Digestion starts in the mouth with what? Amylase
True or false. Once in the small intestines, enzymes break down disaccharides into simple sugars that can be absorbed by the small intestines and are transported via the blood and liver. True.
Once inside the cell, monosaccharides can do what? Follow a catabolic pathway and be used for energy or follow an anabolic pathway and be used to store as fat or glycogen.
The KEY carbohydrate for cells are what? Glucose.
These are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and sometimes Phosphorus. Lipids
These are insoluble in water, but soluble in other lipids. Lipids
Triglycerides (neutral fats), Phospholipids, Steroids, and Elcosanoids are what? Lipids
These are neutral fats, in which diets too HIGH in fat causes heat disease, hypertension, and obesity, but the right amount of fat is good for the body. Triglyceride
These insulate the body (thermoregulation), form a protective shield around the kidneys and orbit of the eyes, are needed for absorption of vitamin A, D, E, K, these are also vital for energy storage. Triglycerides
These contain a high number of carbon-hydrogen bonds, therefore contains more chemical energy the either carbs or proteins. Triglycerides
These are neutral, hydrophobic structures composed of one central glycerol molecule and three chains of fatty acids (thus the "tri" part) Triglycerides
There are two types of triglycerides what are they? Saturated and Unsaturated
Saturated triglycerides are what? Animal Fat, butter, grease. Solid at room temperature. Contain only single bonds and all binding sites are occupied. Found in food that are known to form plaque on the blood vessels.
Unsaturated triglycerides are what? Plant Oils. Contain double bonds and has the ability to attach to other atoms. A liquid at room temp, better for heart health because they don't clog.
Why are unsaturated triglycerides unsaturated? They contain double bonds, which later can be broken down to accommodate additional atoms.
These cannot be synthesized by cells and must be provided by the diet. Essential Fatty Acids
What are Linoleic acids and Arachidonic acids? Essential Fatty Acids
These is controlled by the liver and are taken up by the liver from the circulating blood and altered. Lipid Metabolism
Lipolysis is what? The breakdown of lipids into smaller usable units.
Hydrophilic means? water loving
Hydrophobic means? water hating
This has hydrophillic heads and hydrophobic tails, these make up the cell membranes. Are glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phorsphate. Phospholipids
True or false. The phosphate end = head = hydrophilic. True
True or false. The fatty acids end = tail = hydrophobic. True.
These are hydrophobic and contain little oxygen. There are various forms all with common "cholesterol" ring. They with cholesterol are necessary and helpful in appropriate amount and in excess are harmful. Steroids
This helps form bile which is needed for digestion. Cholesterol
This is a building block for important hormones like key reproductive hormones in the body. Cholesterol
Too much from genetics or diet can cause heart and vascular disease. Cholesterol
This is used by the adrenal glands, testes, and ovaries for the creation of steroid hormones like cortisone, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. Cholesterol
Cholesterol is needed for the adrenal glands to make what? Steroids
This is needed in our body to respond to stress. Steroids
Too much causes what? Cushing's Disease
Eicosanoids are what? Lipids, which all start with a 20 carbon fatty acid. This group includes the prostaglandins, protects the stomach lining, and is produced in many organs in the body.
These are a group of naturally occurring, chemically related, that stimulate contractiliy of the uterine and other smooth muscle and have the ability to lower blood pressure, regulate acid secretions of the stomach. Eicosaniods
The main use is in the treatment and regulation of activity of female reproductive tract. Eicosanoids
These have many different uses and many different shapes. The shape of it is directly related to the function. Proteins
These are usually long, strong (fibrous) proteins. They often add strength and shape. Structural proteins
There are globular proteins, smaller and flexible in shape. Functional proteins
These are related to the hair and related structure, collagen in connective tissues and bone and tendons. Structural Proteins
This is actin and myosin in muscle tissue. Contractile Proteins
This is contained in the muscles and myoglobin. Storage Proteins
This functional protein is involved with hormones and insulin. Regulatory Proteins
This functional protein is involved with hemoglobin and myoglobin. Transport Proteins
This functional protein is involved with antibodies. Protective Proteins
This functional protein is involved with cell receptors and membrane transport molecules. Membrane proteins
Enzymes are what? Proteins
Enzymes often serve as a what to a reaction. Catalyst
These have a certain type of fit with their substrates (or reactions). "lock and key"
True or False. Enzymes act on these substrates but are unchanged at the end of the reaction. True.
Substrate A +/- Substrate B -> product (enzyme). Yes.
Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins. True.
There are how many different AA in the body. 20
AA, ALL have common basic structure. C + H + NH2 +COOH True.
Each has its own unique side chain which always shows up as a "L" False shows up as a "R".
This critera makes a protein different. A. How many AA are in a chain. B. What sequence on the chain the AA are. C. There are 20 different AA making many different combos.
Dipeptide contains how many AA. 2
Tripeptide contains how many AA. 3
Polypeptide contains how many AA. Many AA.
A protein is a chain of more than what number of AA. 100
Organic Molecules contain.... Nucleic acids, the formula of = C + O + H + N + P, Only two classes to worry about. RNA and DNA.
These are the building blocks of genetics... RNA and DNA
There are how many unique nucleotides? 5
The 5 nucleotides are what? 1. Adenine 2. Guanine 3. Cytosine 4. Uracil 5. Thymine
True or false. The 5 nucleotides are always found in pairs? True.
These types of nucleotides are found in BOTH RNA and DNA. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine.
This nucleotide is found only in RNA Uracil
This nucleotide is only found in DNA Thymine
True or false, the order of the nucleotide determines the amino acid. True
An Amino Acid = 3 joined nucleotides. True
A gene is a string of nucleotides carrying enough information to make a peptide. True
Chains of genes + more proteins. Daughter cells can inherit complete identical copies of chromosomes from parent cells during cell division. Chromosomes
This is Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA
The nucleus is called what? Brain stem of cells
Mitochondria is called what? The work house of a cell.
This guides every detail of the shape and working of every living organism. DNA
This is a 2 parallel strands of nucleotides. DNA
This contains adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine DNA
True or false. Adenine can only bond with Guanine. False. Adenine can only bond with Thymine.
True or false. Guanine can only bond with Cytosine. True.
A double helix is what? A double strand that twists that creates a double helix.
Created by: rlayna



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