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Quiz five

strongyles & trichostrongyles

QuestionAnswer
2 teeth in buccal capsule, most pathogenic, causes acute verminous arteritis, cause of colic S. vulgaris
no teeth S. edentatus
3 teeth in buccal capsule S. equinus
– L3’s penetrate the mucosa of the cecum/colon→molt to L4 in the liver and migrate to the peritoneum→molt to L5 in the intestinal wall S. edentatus
L4’s molt in the submucosa of the cecum/colon→migrate to the liver and L5’s molt in the intestinal wall/pancreas. S. equinus
Life cycle - Direct and non-migratory, hypobiosis Small strongyles (30+ species)
Pathology - mucosal lesions during larval encystment and re-emergence contributes to colic (abdominal distress Small Strongyles
LEAF CROWN & TEETHIN BUCCAL CAPSULE SMALL STRONGYLE
Parasiticide resistance heritable mutation permits survival
resistance to all drugs within that action class (e.g., benzimidazoles) Side resistance
Low-dose daily feeding of pyrantel tartrate may lead to resistance of small strongyles
may promote the selection of resistance genes (against pryantel pamoate & oxibendazole) The mode of administration
To slow or stop anthelmintic resistance administer when actually needed
Swine Nodular worm Oesophagostomum dentatum
Common in adults pigs Oesophagostomum dentatum
reduced litter size “Thin sow” syndrome
Nodular worm of cattle (O. radiatum Oesophagostomum spp
May cause diarrhea Oesophagostomum spp
Nodules are seen in the walls of small and large intestines. Oesophagostomum spp
Adults in Large intestine Oesophagostomum spp
sheep and goats) O. venulosum, O. columbianum
Swine Kidney worm Stephanurus dentatum
Complex life cycle, including larval migration through liver Stephanurus dentatum
Adults have “mottled” appearance Stephanurus dentatum
Condemnation of liver at slaughter Stephanurus dentatum
Gapeworm Syngamus trachea
Adults are “in permanent copula Syngamus trachea
Form a “Y” shape Syngamus trachea
Reside in trachea/upper bronchi of avian species Syngamus trachea
Pathology – dyspnea, suffocation & death Syngamus trachea
Brown or Western Stomach Worm Ostertagia (Teladorsagia)
cattle O. ostertagia
sheep and goats T. circumcinta
larval invasion of gastric glands (2 main types of disease): Ostertagia (Teladorsagia)
weanling calves in first grazing season are target animals (late spring); diarrhea and weight loss (low mortality) Type 1
caused by rapid emergence of hypobiotic larvae, yearling calves enter second grazing season (late winter); may be high mortality Type 2
Barber Pole Worm Haemonchus
Most severe in sheep Haemonchus
Adults have small buccal capsule w/lancet to pierce mucosa and suck blood Haemonchus
Gut - uterus and ovaries wind around blood-filled gut resembling a barber pole Haemonchus
Direct life cycle Haemonchus
Hypobiosis - important for larvae to over-winter in host and reemerge when conditions are better Haemonchus
acute haemonchosis (10,000+ worms) in young causes anemia & bottle jaw. Haemonchus
Chronic haemonchosis (100-1000 worms) Haemonchus
Use a scale to measure blood loss (anemia) in sheep & goats FAMACHA
Selective rather than whole-herd treatment FAMACHA
Designed to delay the development of resistance in an unselected population (“refugia” or wild gene pool) which have a pool of sensitive genes. FAMACHA
Thin-necked intestinal worm Nematodirus
Hosts: cattle and sheep Nematodirus
Acute diarrhea in young animals Nematodirus
Eggs – LARGER than typical trichostrongyle egg Nematodirus
Cattle Bankrupt Worm Cooperia
Hosts: cattle, sheep & goats Cooperia
Not highly pathogenic Cooperia
May cause some diarrhea, anorexia & depressed growth Cooperia
Resides in the small intestine Cooperia
Very common species Trichostronglylus axei
Can cross-infect between ruminants, horses, and swine Trichostronglylus axei
Causes gastroenteritis in young animals (“black scours”) Trichostronglylus axei
“Red stomach worm” Hyostrongylus
Larvated eggs found in “fresh” feces Hyostrongylus
Direct life cycle; no migration of larvae Hyostrongylus
Larvae molt in the gastric mucosa Hyostrongylus
Clinical signs: anemia, poor appetite, stomach nodules & ulceration Hyostrongylus
Created by: alljacks