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RVT Review

left shift immature neutrophils present in the blood (bands - unsegmented neutrophils). This is often seen in acute infections, when toxic granulation and 'Dohle Bodies' may also be seen or in hypoxia and shock.
hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy excision of the uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries; the common spay procedure in dogs and cats
stages of erythrocyte maturation (1-3) 1) rubriblast (proerythroblast) 2) prorubricyte (basophilic erythroblast) 3) rubricyte (polychromatophilic erythroblast)
stages of erythrocyte maturation (4-6) 4) metarubricyte (orthochromatic/chromatophilic erythroblast) 5) reticuloycte 6) mature erythrocyte
stages of granuloycte maturation 1) promyelocyte 2) myelocyte (in neutro, baso and eos) 3) metamyelocyte (in neutro and eos, baso - rare) 4) band neutrophil (no eos or baso) 5) granuloyctes
spirochete and ex of gram-neg helically coiled bacteria. Leptospira and Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme dis)
otodectes cynotis common ear mite of dogs and cats
barbiturates (what is and ex) CNS depressants - sedation to anesthesia ex: pentobarb, thiopental, phenobarb
dry heat oven sterilization 160-170 C (320-338 F) 2-4 hrs
steam sterilization autoclaving reach temp of at least 121 C (250 F) at 15 psi (usually 30-40 mins)
all kitten teeth erupt by 4-7 weeks
all puppy teeth erupt by 6-8 weeks
# of teeth in canine (deciduous and adult) 28 deciduous, 42 permanent
# of teeth in feline (deciduous and adult) 26 deciduous, 30 cat
sternal recumbency lying on stomach
dorsal recumbency lying on back
Coombs Test testing for antiglobulins, used in blood transfusion cross matching and dx of IMHA
orogastric passing a stomach tube via the mouth, cats often need sedation, used in patients w/gastric dilation, possibility of animals biting tube
nasoesophageal tube passed through nose to esophagus, measured from nares to distal esophagus
nasogastric tube placed through nose to stomach, measured from nares to eighth rib, short term force feeding (like anorexic cats)
pharyngostomy sx procedure involving placement of tube through incision in neck and tube extends to esophagus, measure from mandible to distal esophagus, not as well tolerated, can cause laryngeal irritation and obstruction and can induce emesis and become dislodged
esophagostomy tube placed directly into esophagus for nutritional support, less likely to aspirate food, placed in midcervical esophagus on left side of neck
lipids nutrient that serves as principal source of energy, provides palatability and texture, supplies essential fatty acids and acts as carrier for fat
archidonic third essential fatty acid needed in cats (not dogs)
taurine deficiency nutritional loss in cats that results in retinal degeneration, reproductive insufficiency and impaired immune function, also been linked to dilated cardiomyopathy
purple top tube anticoag: EDTA, purpose: cbc, platelet
red top tube no anticoag, purpose: chem
tiger top tube separator gel, purpose: chem
green top tube heparin, purpose: electrolytes, stats
turquoise top tube citrate, purpose: coag assay
grey or yellow top tube fluoride oxalate, purpose: glucose
miosis constriction of the eye
mydriasis dilation of the eye
canine pelvic girdle ilium, ischium, pubis, acetabular bones
anoxia reduced supply of oxygen
anesthetic without sensation
anascara generalized edema with accumulation of serum in subcutaneous connective tissue
types of hernias inguinal, femoral, umbilical, incisional, diaphragmatic, lumbar, perineal, paraesophageal, sciatic
twitch nerve stimulating device that may immobilize horses and proves useful in restraint, most often applied to upper lip of horse
near side horse's left side, always dismount on this side
off side horse's right side
red stain gram negative
violet stain gram positive
parabasal cells smallest epithelial cell seen in vaginal smear, high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, appear during diestrus and anestrus and absent during estrus
intermediate cells two to three times larger in diameter than parabasal, present during all cycles EXCEPT estrus
superficial cells largest cells seen in vaginal smear, increase during proestrus and define estrus, have no or small/dark nucleus
Steam autoclaving settings 250F (121C) at 15 psi for 15 mins
bacterin a suspension of killed or weakened bacteria used as a vx (inactivated vx)
attenuated vx modified live, takes a living organism and alters it to make harmless or reduce virulence
Strongylus vulgaris Nematode (roundworm) parasite of the intestinal tract commonly infecting horses, adult worms cause damage but larvae cause more, often lead to colic. Aka blood worm.
EKG measures electrical activity of the heart over time, indicates overall rhythm of the heart and weaknesses of some of the heart muscles (but not all). Does not indicate pumping ability of heart.
reticulocyte immature non-nucleated erythrocyte which still retains basophilic material that stains with vital stain
crenation contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution; rbcs appear prickly with irregular margins
polycythemia a condition in which there is an increase in the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by rbcs, can be due to an increase of the mass of rbcs or decrease in plasma volume
HoweII-Jolly bodies nuclear remnants found in erythrocytes, are round, dark violet granules about one micron in diameter, generally indicate absent or non-functioning spleen, occur in megalobastic anemia and in other forms of nuclear maturation defects.
Burr cells crenated cells
Urine specific gravity increases as urine concentration... increases
pleuritis inflammation of the lining of the lung
Coggins test tests for equine infectious anemia (EIA), immunidiffusion test used
Brucellosis aka Bangs disease. Zoonotic, caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or contact with their secretions, gram negative rod
Canine dental formula 2 (I 3/3 C 1/1 P 4/4 M 2/3) = 42
Feline dental formula 2 (I 2/2 C 1/1 P 3/2 M 1/1) = 30
peritoneum serous membrane that forms lining of abdominal cavity
cestode tapeworm
trematode fluke
nematode roundworm
normal wbc range dog 6-17
normal wbc range cat 6-20
normal pcv dog 37-55
normal pcv cat 30-45
PMN aka polymorphoneutrophil, segmented neutrophil (granuloycyte)
boar uncastrated male pig
gilt female pig that has not yet given birth
gelding castrated male horse
ewe female sheep that has given birth at least once
barrow castrated male pig
ram uncastrated male sheep
steer castrated male cow
sow a female cow that has given birth
heifer female cow that hasn't given birth
buck adult male deer or rabbit
pullet a young chicken, especially one that hasn't begun to lay eggs
stallion uncastrated male horse
vein a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries to the heart
artery a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
anisocytosis abnormal variation in the size of erythrocytes
roleaux stacks of rbcs
poikilocytosis abnormally shaped rbcs
metarubricyte an immature nucleated erythrocyte, occurs before reticulocyte
reticulocyte an immature non nucleated erythrocyte containing basophilic filaments at site of former nucleus
microsporum canis dermatophyte that causes ringworm
Ex of Gram - bacteria pasteurella multocida, e coli, brucella, proteus, salmonella, pseudomonas
Ex of Gram + bacteria staphylococcus, clostridium, bacillus
E coli (gram and shape) gram neg rod
staph (gram and shape) gram pos cocci
proteus (gram and causes) gram neg bacteria, UTI
brucella (gram and shape) gram neg coccobacilli
pasteurella multocida (gram and shape) gram neg coccobacilli
Maconkey agar only grows Gram neg bacteria
basophilic stippling most commonly seen in lead poisoning
Types of crystals found in alkaline urine triple phosphate, ammonium biurate, calcium carbonate
Calcium oxalate crystals often a toxic effect of ethylene glycol poisoning, cannot be made to dissolve, source of bladder stones, strong hereditary component
asystole flat line, electrical and mechanical activity has stopped, tx with atropine and/or epi
EMD nonperfusing rhythms, electromechanical dissociation, pulseless electrical activity. tx naloxone, megadose atropine, epi
ventricular fibrillation common arrhythmia in myocardial infarction. In dogs may be preceded by rapid ventricular tachycardia. Must be converted asap. Tx of choice is electrical defibrillation. Mg Cl another option.
ventricular tachycardia rapid heartbeat that starts in ventricles, tx is cpr, electrical defib, lidocaine
av block atrioventricular block, impairment of conduction between atria and ventricles in heart; strong vagal stimulation may produce it; muscarinic receptor affected
left mid thorax between 3rd and 4th intercostal space pulmonary semilunar valve
major crossmatch 4% suspension of donor rbcs suspended in donors serum with patients serum
minor crossmatch donors serum against patients rbcs
canine maintenance replacement fluid therapy 50-75 ml/kg/day
Created by: alanagirl



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