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Ch. 14 See & Hear

Veterinary Medical Terminology

Ocular System responsible for vision
Eyes receptor organs for sight
Opt/i, Opt/o, Optic/o, Ocul/o, Ophthalm/o meaning "eye or sight"
Extraocular outside the eyeball
Intraocular inside the eyeball
Periocular around the eyeball
Adnexa accessory structures of an organ
Stroma supporting tissue of an organ
Orbit bony cavity of the skull that contains the eyeball
Periorbita eye socket
Eye Muscles 7 major muscles attached to each eye that make range of motion possible. (2 oblique, 4 rectus, 1 retractor bulbi)
Binocular meaning both eyes, the muscles of both eyes work together in coordinated movements that make normal binocular vision
Extrinsic muscles 6 muscles that attach the outside of the eyeball to the bones of the orbit
Extrins/o meaning "contained outside"
Levator Palpebrae muscle muscles that raise up the eyelid
Eyelids upper and lower, to protect from injury, foreign matter, and excessive light
Blephar/o meaning "eyelid"
Palpebrae, Palpebra (singular) meaning "eyelid"
Palpebral meaning "pertaining to the eyelid"
Canthus the angle where the upper and lower eyelid meet
Canth/o meaning "corner of the eye"
Tarsal Plate platelike framework within the upper and lower eyelids
Tars/o meaning "edge of the eyelid" or "ankle joint"
Meibomian Glands (Tarsal Glands) sebaceous glands on the margins of each eyelid
Eyelashes (or Cilia) hairlike structures on the edge of each eyelid
Conjunctiva mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid. forms a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eye when the eyelids are closed
Nictitating Membrane (third eyelid or nictitan or haws) conjunctival fold attached at the medial canthus that moves across the cornea when the eyelids close.
Conjunctiv/o meaning "conjunctiva"
Lacrimal Apparatus structures that produce, store, and remove tears
Lacrimation condition of normal tear secretion
Lacrim/o, Dacry/o meaning "Tear drop, Tear duct, or Lacrimal Duct"
Lacrimal Canaliculi the ducts at the medial canthus that collect tears and drain them into the lacrimal sac
Lacrimal Sac or Dacryocyst the enlargement that collects tears at the upper portion of the tear duct
Nasolacriamal Duct the passageway that drains tears into the nose
Dorsal Punctum small spot near the upper medial canthus where the nasolacrimal duct begins
Ventral Punctum the small spot near the lower medial canthus where the nasolacrimal duct begins
Punctum meaning "point or small spot"
Eyeball synonymous with "globe" or "orb"
Sclera fibrous outer layer of the eye that maintains the shape of the eye. aka: the white of the eye
Scler/o meaning " sclera, or hard"
Episclera thin layer covering the outside of the Sclera
Cornea provides most of the focusing power of the eye
Corne/o, Kerat/o meaning "cornea"
Descemet's membrane the innermost deepest layer of the cornea
Choroid the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains blood vessels and supplies blood to the entire eye
Opaque meaning light can't pass through
Tapetum Lucidum (choroid tapetum) brightly colored iridescent reflecting tissue of the choroid of most species
Tapetum Nigrum the black pigmented tissue layer of the choroid
Tapetum medical term for a layer of cells
Choroid/o meaning "choroid"
Iris the pigmented muscular diaphragm of the choroid that surrounds the pupil. composed of muscle fibers that relax and contract, to change the size of the pupil
Corpora Nigra black pigmentation at the edge of the iris in equine and ruminants
Ir/i, Ir/o, Irid/o, Irit/o meaning "the iris of the eye"
Pupil circular opening in the center of the iris
Pupill/o, Core/o meaning "Pupil"
Constriction making an opening smaller, as with the pupil and the amount of light let in
Miosis pupillary constriction
Dilation making an opening larger
Mydriasis pupillary dilation
Lens the clear, flexible, avascular, curve capsule located posterior to the iris and pupil
Phac/o meaning "lens of the eye"
Ciliary Body the thickened extension of the choroid that assists in accommodation or adjustment of the lens
Ciliary muscles adjust the shape and thickness of the lens
Iridocorneal pertaining to the iris and cornea
Uvea term used to describe the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
Limbus term used for the corneoscleral junction
Retina the nervous tissue layer of the eye that receives images and lines the posterior chamber of the eye
Retin/o meaning "retina"
Rods Specialized cells of the retina that react to light
Cones specialized cells of the retina that react to color and fine detail
Optic Disk the region of the eye where nerve endings of the retina gather to form the optic nerve
blind spot other name for the optic nerve, because it doesn't contain rods and cones
Macula Lutea a centrally depressed, clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina
Fovea Centralis small depression the Macula Lutea surrounds, and contains the greatest concentration of cones in the retina. this is the area of sharpest vision
Macul/o, meaning "spot"
Lute/o meaning "yellow"
Fove/o meaning "pit"
Fundus part of the retina opposite the lens that includes the retina, optic disc, macula Lutea, and Fovea Centralis
Anterior Segment (Aqueous Chamber) the cranial 1/3 of the eyeball, divided into anterior and posterior chambers
Anterior Chamber the eye cavity located between the caudal surface of the cornea and the cranial surface of the iris
Posterior Chamber the eye cavity located between the caudal surface of the iris and the cranial surface of the lens
Aqueous Humor watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, anterior segment fluid that nourishes the intraocular structures
Aque/o meaning "water"
Vitreous Chamber caudal 2/3 of the eyeball
Vitreous Humor (Vitreous) the soft, clear, jelly-like mass that fills the Vitreous chamber
Vitre/o meaning "glassy"
Vison occurs when light rays enter the eye through the cornea, pass through the lens, and travel to the retina
Accomodation the process of the eye adjustments for seeing objects at various distances
Refraction the process of the lens bending the light rays to help them focus on the retina
Convergence simultaneous inward movement of both eyes
Acuity sharpness of acuteness, used in reference to vision
Conjunctival Scrape diagnostic test using an instrument to peel cells from the conjunctiva so that they can be viewed microscopically
Electroretinography procedure of recording the electrical activity of the retina
Electroretinogram the record of electrical activity of the retina. abbr. ERG
Fluorescein dye stain diagnostic test to detect cornea injury by placing dye on the surface of the cornea
Goniometry procedure to measure the drainage angle of the eye
Gon/i meaning "angle or seed"
Menace response diagnostic test to detect vision in which movement is made toward the animal to test whether it will see movement and try to close it's eyelids
Ophthalmoscope instrument used for Ophthalmoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy (Funduscopy) procedure used to examine the interior eye structures, may be direct or indirect
Palpebral reflex diagnostic test in which the eye should blink in response to touch to the medial canthus of the eye
Pupillary light reflex response of pupil to light, abbr. PLR when light is shown on pupil, it should constrict
Schirmer Test diagnostic test using a graded paper strip to measure tear production
Slit Lamp Examiniation visual testing of the cornea, lens, fluids and membranes of the interior of the eye using a narrow beam of light
Tonometry procedure using an instrument to measure intraocular pressure indirectly. can be applanation, or pneumatic
Intraocular Pressure abbr. IOP, determined by the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
Schiotz Tonometer and example of applanation tonometer
OD oculus dexter, meaning right eye
OS oculus sinister, meaning left eye
OU oculus uterque, meaning both eyes
AD Auris dexter, meaning right ear
AS Auris sinister, meaning left ear
AU Auris uterque, meaning both ears
Cycloplegics cause paralysis of the ciliary muscle that may aid in dilation of the pupil an ease the pain on ciliary muscle spasms
Mydriatics agents that dilate the pupil
Amblyopia dimness or loss of sight without detectable eye disease
ambly/o meaning "dim"
Anisocoria condition of unequal pupil size
Anis/o meaning "unequal" (an - not, iso - equal)
Anophthalmos without development of one or both eyes
Aphakia absence of the lens
Blepharitis inflammation of the eyelid
Blepharoptosis drooping of the upper eyelid
Blepharospasm rapid, involuntary contractions of the eyelid
Blindness inability to see
Buphthalmos abnormal enlargement of the eye
Cataract cloudiness or opacity of the lens
Chalazion localized swelling of the eyelid resulting from the obstruction of a sebaceous gland
Conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
Corneal Ulceration surface depression on the cornea
Cyclopia congenital anomaly characterized by a single orbit
dacryoadenitis inflammation of the lacrimal gland
dacryocystitis inflammation of the lacrimal sac and abnormal tear drainage
Diplopia double vision
Dipl/o meaning "double"
-opia meaning "vision"
Distichiasis abnormal condition of a double row of eyelashes that usually result in conjunctival injury.
Ectropion eversion, or turning outward, of the eyelid
Entopion inversion, or turning inward of the eyelid
Epiphora excessive tear production
Episcleritis inflammation of the tissue of the cornea
Exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of the eyeball, sometimes referred to as Exophthalmosis
Floaters particles suspended in the vitreous fluid that cast shadows on the retina. aka vitreous floaters
Glaucoma group of disorders resulting from elevated intraocular pressure
Hordeolum infection of one or more glands of the eyelid (aka. a stye)
Hypertropia deviation of one eye upwards
Hypopyon pus in the anterior chamber of the eye
Hypotropia deviation of one eye downward
Iritis inflammation of the iris
Keratitis inflammation of the cornea
Keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva
Infectious Ketatoconjunctivitis caused by a variety of microbes and is commonly called pinkeye
Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva due to tear deficiency and can lead to persistent, mucopurulent discharge, corneal ulceration, and scarring. aka dry eye. Abbr. KCS
Macular degeneration condition of central vision loss
Microphthalmia abnormally small eyes, aka Microphthalmos
Monochromatism lack of ability to distinguish colors aka. color blindness
Mono meaning "one"
Chrom/o meaning "color"
Nictitating Gland Prolapse hypertrophy and protrusion of the conjunctival fold of the medial canthus. also called cherry eye, or third eyelid prolapse
Nuclear sclerosis drying out of the lens with age
Nyctalopia condition of inability of difficulty seeing at night aka. night blindness
ophthalmoplegia paralysis of eye muscles
panophthalmitis inflammation of all eye structures
Papilledema swelling of the optic disc
Photophobia fear or intolerance of light
Proptosis displacement of the eye from the orbit
Retinal detachment seperation of the nervous layer of the eye from the choroid aka detached retina
Retinopathy any disorder of the retina
Scleral injection dilation of blood vessels into the sclera
Scleritis inflammation of the sclera
Strabismus disorder in which the eye are not directed in a parallel manner; deviation of one or both eyes
Convergent Strabismus deviation of the eyes toward each other aka crossed eyes, Esotopia
Divergent Strabismus deviation of the eyes away from each other aka Exotropia
Synechia adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure
Uveitis inflammation of the Uvea
Blepharectomy surgical removal of all or part of the eyelid
Blepharoplasty surgical repair of the eyelid
Blepharorrhaphy suturing together of the eyelids, aka tarsorrhaphy
Blepharotomy incision on the eyelid, aka tarsotomy
Canthectomy surgical removal of the corner of the eyelid
Canthoplasty surgical repair of the corner of the eyelid
Canthotomy incision into the corner of the eyelid
Conjunctivoplasty surgical repair of the conjunctiva
Dacryocystectomy surgical removal of the lacrimal sac
Dacryocystotomy surgical incision into the lacrimal sac
Enucleation removal of the eyeball
Extracapsular extracion removal of a cataract that leaves the posterior lens capsule intact
Goniotomy incision into the anterior chamber angle for treatment of glaucoma
Intracapsular Extraction cataract removal that includes the surrounding capsule
Iridectomy surgical removal of a portion of the iris
Keratectomy surgical removal of part or all of the cornea
Keratocentesis puncture of the cornea to allow aspiration of aqueous humor
Keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea (may include corneal transplant)
Keratotomy incision into the cornea
Lacromotomy incision into the lacrimal gland or duct
Lensectomy surgical removal of a lens (usually performed on cataracts)
Tarsectomy surgical removal of all or part of the tarsal plate of the third eyelid
tarsorrhaphy suturing together of the eyelids
Ear sensory organ that enables hearing and helps maintain balance
Audit/o, Aud/i, Ot/o meaning "ear"
Acoust/o, Acous/o meaning "hearing"
Auditory pertaining to the ear
Acoustic pertaining to sound
Pinna external portion of the ear that catches sound waves and transmits them to the external auditory canal. aka Auricle
Pinn/i meaning "external ear"
Aur/i, Aur/o meaning "external ear" or just "ear"
External Auditory canal (external auditory meatus) the tube that transmits sound from the pinna to the tympanic membrane.
Cerumen secreted by glands that line the external auditory canal. aka ear wax
Tympanic Membrane aka eardrum, tissue that separates the external ear from the middle ear. when sound waves each the tympanic membrane it transmits sounds to the ossicles
Tympan/o, Myring/o meaning "eardrum"
Auditory Ossicles 3 bones of the middle ear that transmit sound vibrations
Malleus auditory ossicle known as the hammer
Incus auditory ossicle known as the anvil
Stapes auditory ossicle known as the stirrup
Eustachian Tube aka auditory tube, the narrow duct that leads from the middle ear to the nasopharynx. helps equalize air pressure
Oval window located at the base of the stapes, membrane that separates the middle an inner ear
Round window membrane that receives sound waves through fluid after they have passed through the cubicals
Tympanic bulla osseous chamber at the base of the skull
Bulla meaning "large vesicle"
Bony Labyrinth
Labrynth/o meaning "maze, labyrinth, inner ear"
Perilymph water like fluid filling the bony labyrinth
Endolymph membranous labyrinth filled with a thicker fluid
Vestibule located adjacent to the oval window and between the semicurcular canals and cochlea)
Semicircular Canals located adjacent to the vestibule, oriented at right angles to each other (Vestibular, Tympanic, Cochlear
Ampulla contain sensory cells with hairlike extensons
Cochlea spiral shaped passage that lead from th oval window to the inner ear.
Cochle/o meaning "snail or spiral"
Cochlear duct membranous tube in the bony cochlea that is filled with endolymph
Organ of Corti spiral organ of hearing located in the cochlea that receives and relays vibrations
air conduction sound traveling through the air through the pinna, travel to the auditory canal, and strikes he tympanic membrane
Bone conduction Ossicles form the sound ways throughout the middle ear.
Equilibrium the state of balance
Saccule and Utricle small hairlike sacs in the vestibule that contain macula
Macula and organ consisting of hair cells covered by a gelatinous mass containing Otoliths
Otoliths small stones
Cristae contained in the ampulla, sensory organ
Cytology study of cells
Otoscopy used to examine the ears for parasites, irritation, discharge, and the integrity of the tympanic membrane
Aural hematoma collection or mass of blood in the outer ear
deafness complete or partial hearing loss
Myringitis inflammation of the eardrum
Otalgia ear pain
Otitis inflammation of the ear, usually has a 2nd term that describes location
Otitis externa inflammation of outer ear
Otitis Media inflammation of the middle ear
Ottis interna inflammation of the inner ear
Otomycosis fungal infection of the ear
Otopathy disease of the ear
Otopyorrhea pus discharge from the ear
Otorrhea ear discharge
Panotitis inflammation of all ear parts
Vertigo sense of dizziness
Ablation removal of a part
Myringectomy surgical removal of all or part of the ear drum aka tympanectomy
Otoplasty surgical repair of the ear
Created by: dmweaver



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