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A & P Lecture

Muscles

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 types of muscle? skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Define tendon. attach to bones by fibrous tissue
What is an aponeuroses? attach to bones or muscles by broad sheets of fibrous tissue
Define what origin of a muscle means. It is the more stable site of muscle attachment and does not move much when muscle contracts. It is usually more proximal.
Define what the insertion of a muscle means. It is the part of the muscle that undergoes the most movement when a muscle contracts. It is usually the most distal end in limbs.
In what ways are muscles named? By their action, shape, location.
In what ways are muscles identified? By the direction of their fibers, the number of heads of the muscle or divisions and their attachment sites.
What is the masseter muscle responsible for? mastication (chewing)
Define sarcomere. A series of protein filaments that make up contractile units of muscle cells.
Where are cutaneous muscles found? found in connective tissue just beneath skin little or no attachment to bones
What is the function of the brachiocephalicus? close the jaw extend the head and neck and pull the front leg forward
Where is the linea alba found? ventral midline of the abdomen
What kind of a muscle is the diaphragm? inspiratory muscle
Muscle activity generates what? heat
What are the mechanisms to eliminate excess heat? panting or sweating
Spasmodic muscle contractions that increase heat production is called what? shivering
In what area is cardiac muscle found? heart only
Is smooth muscle involuntary or voluntary? involuntary; cells not under conscious control
Where is visceral smooth muscle found? stomach, intestines, uterus, urinary bladder
The heart is innervated from what two systems? sympathetic and parasympathetic
What does the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems do to body systems? sympathetic system decreases activity parasympathetic system increases activity
What is the functional unit of the nervous system? neuron
The nervous system uses chemicals to carry messages by the use of what? neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters produced by neurons travel short distances across what area? allows system to react quickly synapses
Because of the neurotransmitters traveling across the synapses the body can react quickly or slowly? allows system to react quickly
What system uses chemicals to carry messages through hormones being secreted directly into the bloodstream? endocrine
What are the two main divisions of the nervous system? CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system
The CNS consists of _____________________________ brain and spinal cord
The PNS consists of ________________________________ cranial and spinal nerves to link the CNS to the rest of the body
The central cell body of a neuron is called what? soma
The tendril like processes that extend from the neuron that receive stimuli are called what? dendrites
What conducts nerve impulses away from the body? axons
Sensory nerves are also called what? afferent nerves
Motor nerves are also called what? efferent nerves
Sensory nerves conduct impulses away or toward the CNS? towards
Motor nerves conduct impulses away or toward the CNS? away
The junction between two neurons or a neuron and a target cell is called what? synapse
Which part of the brain is the largest? cerebrum
Which is the second largest component of the brain? cerebellum
The area that is the connection between spinal cord and rest of the brain is called what? brain stem
What are the components of the brain stem? medulla oblongata, the pons, and midbrain
What are the three layers of the meninges of the brain? dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
CSF stands for? cerebrospinal fluid
The fluid between the layers of meninges, and in canals and cavities inside brain and spinal cord which provides cushioning is called what? cerebrospinal fluid
What is the blood-brain barrier? separates capillaries in the brain from nervous tissue; prevents many drugs, proteins, ions, and other molecules from readily passing from the blood into the brain
How are the cranial nerves numbered? roman numerals 1-12
What is the central part of the spinal cord called? medulla
Which part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for helping the body cope in emergency situations? sympathetic
Which part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for helping the body return to normal after a fight or flight response? parasympathetic
What is the primary neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system? norepinephrine
A light tap on media canthus of the eye produces a blink of eyelids which is called what kind of reflex? palpebral
What is the PLR (pupillary light reflex)? normal response to shining light in the eye of an animal is for the iris in both eyes to constrict
Created by: spoitevint