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Special Populations

Chapter 11 in AFAA PFT Certification

Name (5) pregnancy related changes in a woman's body. Increased Lordosis and strain on hip joints; Nerve compression syndromes; Total blood volume increase; Potential compression of Vena Cavae; Lateral Expansion of ribcage;
Name (5) more pregnancy related changes in a woman's body Lateral expansion of ribcage; increased need for calories; diastasis recti; Tendency towards varicosities in the legs and pelvis; difficulty sleeping; laxity of joints
What are (4) potential risks or concerns of exercise during pregnancy? Strenuous occupational exercise could adversely affect growth; Exercise may cause a body temperature too high for the baby; Shunting of blood during exercise may compromise fetal oxygen supply; Muscles for exercising and baby will compete for glucose.
Name (4) 2002 ACOG Guidelines for exercising during pregnancy that affect programming. Pregnant women SHOULD exercise; (Sans complications) At least 30 mins/day; Moderate Intensity (12-14 RPE scale); Avoid activities with the risk of falling or abdominal trauma
Describe the procedure for checking to see if a client has diastasis recti. Have the client lie supine on the floor with knees bent. Do a curl up and hold the position. Look for the tear near the navel and measure with finger widths.
Name (3) abdominal exercises for pregnant women. Side-Lying Crunch, Standing Crunch, All-Four (angry cat) Crunch
Define: Sarcopenia The loss of muscle strength due (in part) to declining muscle mass
Define: Osteoarthritis (degenerative) wearing away of cartilage, leading to bone abrasions
Define: Rheumatid Arthritis (inflammatory) autoimmune disorder (a person's immune system attacks healthy cells)
Define: Fibromyalgia Widespread pain in joints, muscles, and ligaments
Define: Osteoporosis Areduced bone density
Define: Osteopenia Premature bone thinning
Define: Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (Stroke) loss of blood flow to the brain
Define: Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Atherosclerosis in the extremes, primarily in the calves
Define: Claudication Cramping, burning pain caused by reduced blood flow
Define: COPD any condition where airway resistance is increased
Define: Dyspnea Shortness of breath
Define: Type I Diabetes The pancreas does not produce enough insulin to breakdown glucose
Define: Type II Diabetes The body's cells are resistant to receiving insulin
Define: Multiple Sclerosis Gradual damage to the myelin sheath
Define: Parkinson's Disease Dopamine is gradually lost to the Basal Ganglia which causes tremors, rigidity, slow, and hesitant movements.
List (10) characteristics of aging that affect exercise programming. Decrease Max HR, Decrease VO2max, Increase BP, Increase the use of meds, Slower reaction time, progressive loss of bone mass, Increase in the percentage of body fat, Sarcopenia, Decrease flexibility, and Increased tendency towards dehydration.
What are the ACSM guidelines for cardio-respiratory fitness for elderly people? Walking, water exercise, and stationary bike; Avoid excessive orthopedic stress; Activity should be accessible, convenient, and enjoyable; Use RPE rather than HRR methods; Perform shorter bouts of exercise (i.e.10 mins)
List at least (5) strategies that are important when working with people who have osteoarthritis. Start with low-intensity % low- or non -impact exercises; Avoid high levels of exercise; Stretch daily; Stop any exercise that causes pain; Perform strengthening exercises 2x/week for unaffected joints
List (4) strategies that are important when working with people who have osteoporosis. Avoid all spinal flexion; Include balance training and exercises relvant to daily living; avoid high-impact activities and activities with the risk of falling; Spinal extension may be beneficial in reducing the risk of vertebral fractures
Name (4) recommendations from ACSM that are important when working with children. Discourage extended periods of inactivity (less than 2hrs); Provide a variety of age appropriate physical activities; Children should accumulate at least 60 mins of activity per day; Allow children to engage in intermittent activity
What are some of the lifestyle factors that can influence blood pressure? High sodium intake, High saturate fat intake, cigarette smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol consumption, high-stress lifestyle, physical inactivity.
Clients with hypertension who may need to be in a medically supervised program include: Those with a systolic BP that lowers with physical activity; Those who frequently have a resting systolic BP >160mmHG and resting diastolic >90mmHG; Those with an abnormal increase in BP (>200mmHG)
Name the Cardio-respiratory and strength training recommendations for training people with hypertension. Take BP when permitted; HRR=40-60%; Use RPE if on meds; Be familiar with how exercise effect BP meds; Avoid heavy weights and clenched fists; low intensity & high reps; avoid point of failure; avoid isometric training; avoid positions with feet high
What are the signs of hypoglycemia? Excessive fatigue, nausea, dizziness, profuse perspiration, spots in front of eyes, confusion, shakiness, headaches, sudden rapid HR, seizures, fainting
Name (4) preventative steps a personal trainer can take to help persons with diabetes avoid a hypoglycemic reaction. Always have some form of sugar available; Have a client eat carbs before and during a prolonged exercise; Do now work at peak of insulin action; Avoid exercising where the insulin was injected.
Created by: BeeGe1026