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Injury Prevention

Chapter 10 in AFAA PFT Certification

QuestionAnswer
What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for injuries? Intrinsic is internal (thoughts, self-esteem, muscle imbalances, etc.) Extrinsic is external (improper warm-up, fatigue, improper footwear)
Define: Acute Injury Sudden onset due to a specific trauma
Define: Chronic Injury The accumulation of repeated episodes of microtrauma to cause a disease or other situation
Define: Muscle Strain an overstretching, overexertion, or overuse of a soft tissue (less severe than a sprain)
Define: Sprain usually caused by severe stress, stretch, or tear of soft tissues such as ligaments, or joint capsusles
Define: Sublaxation an incomplete or partial dislocation that often leads to soft tissue trauma to the surounding tissue
Define: Dislocation The displacement of the bony part of a joint that leads to soft tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and muscle spasm
Define; Tendinitis The inflammation of a tendon leading to scarring of calcium deposits
Define: Synovitis The inflammation of the synovial mambrane
Define: Bursitis The inflammation of the bursa
Define: Contusion Bruising from a direct blow, resulting in capillary rupture, edema, and inflammation
What are the stages of inflammation and repair? Acute, Subacute, Chronic
List the muscles that generally need to be stretched Pectoralis Major, Anterior Deltoid, Upper Trapezius, Levator Scapulae, Erectro Spinae, Hip Flexors, Hamstrings, Calves
List the muscles that generally need to be strengthened Middle Trapezius, Rhomboids, Posterior Deltoids, Lower Trapezius, Pectoralis Minor, External Rotator Cuff Muscles, Abdominals, Vastus Medialis
What are some exercises that should be avoided for the general public in order to decrease the risk of injury? Ballistic Stretching, Hurdler's Stretch, Full Straight-Leg Sit-Ups, Double Straight-Leg Raises, Forced High Kicks, Unsupported Forward Flexion, Deep Knee Bend, Plough, Full Cobra, V-Sits
Name (4) Shoulder Joint injuries Rotator Cuff Injury, Impingement Syndrome, Biceps Tendonitis, & Shoulder Dislocation/Sublaxation
Name (4) mechanisms of Shoulder Joint injury Extreme Horizontal Shoulder Abduction while in External Rotation, Internal Rotation while Abducting the Shoulder Joint, Muscle imbalance between powerful internal and weak external rotators, Muscle imbalance b/w scapular elevators and depressors
List (2) elbow injuries Tennis Elbow & Golfer's Elbow
Describe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome reduced blood flow to the median nerve
Describe Neutral Spinal Alignment (4) proper curves in spine; lordotic curve in cervical spine, kyphotic curve in thoracic spine, lordotic curve in cervical spine, & kyphotic curve in sacral spine.
Describe Forward Head (Chin jut) characterized by increased flexion of the lower cervical and upper thoracic regions of the spine
Describe Excessive Kyphosis (Round Back) increased thoracic spinal curve, protracted scapulae and often accompanied by forward head
Describe Excessive Lordosis Increased lumbosacral angle, increased lmbar lordosis, increased anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion
Describe Scoliosis A sideways or lateral curvature of the spine
Describe Herniated Disk (Ruptured Disk) the innermost ring tears or ruptures and the nucleus pulposus presses out onto the spinal nerves
List some strategies that are helpful in the management of excessive Kyphosis Strengthen the Mid-Trap, Rhomboids, Scapular Depressors, and Posterior Deltoids, Teach postural awareness,
List some good initial strategies that are helpful in the management of Excessive Lordosis Strengthen and tighten the abdominals and Provide stretches for the Erector Spinae
List (5) exercise hazards for the low back Unsupported Spinal Flexion, Unsupported Spinal Flexion with Rotation, Unsupported Lateral Flexion, Extreme Lumber Hyperextension, Long-Lever Traction
Describe ITB Syndrome Overuse injury caused by a tight Iliotibial Band
Describe Piriformis Sundrome Tendinitis of the hip extermal rotators
Describe Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Abnormal lateral tracking on the kneecap (causes chronic anterior pain)
Describe Patellar Tendinitis Inflammation of the distal patellar tendon due to repetitive stress
Describe Ligament Injuries of the Knee Usually a ligament sprain from excessive torque
Describe Meniscus Tears cause by traumatic blows to the knee, rotary forces (torqueing) within the joint, and by bending and straightening the knee too far
What is Open Kinetic Chain? The terminal end of a joint is freely moving
What is Closed Kinetic Chain? The terminal joint is fixed
What (3) things need to be avoided for proper knee mechanics? Knee flexion >90* in a weight-bearing capacity, Knee torque, Knee hyperextension
Define Shin Splints Pin the shins due to repetitive impact loading activities
Define Anterior Compartment Syndrome Dorsiflexion muscles become swollen and restricts blood flow
Describe Achilles Tendinitis Inflammation of the Achilles Tendon
Define Inversion Sprains overstretched ligaments of the lateral ankle muscles
Define Plantar Fasciitis Chronic inflammation of the plantar fascia
Describe Metatarsalgia Generalized pain or tenderness in the metatarsals
Created by: BeeGe1026