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Ch. 7 Null & Void

Veterinary Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Urinary System removes waste from the body by constantly filtering blood
Urea major waste product of protein metabolism
Homeostasis a stable internal environment
Home/o meaning "unchanging"
Urin/o, Ur/o meaning "urine" or "pertaining to the urinary system"
Retroperitoneally located behind the lining of the abdominal cavity or outside the peritoneal cavity.
Ren/o, Neph/o meaning "kidney"
Cortex outer layer of the kidney
Cortic/o meaning" outer region" used to describe outer region of many organs
Medulla inner layer of the kidney
Medull/o meaning "inner, or middle portion" used to describe the middle or inner layer of many organs
Nephron the functional unit of the kidney consisting of the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule (Glomular capsule), Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, Collecting duct
Glomerulus a cluster of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's Capsule
Glomerul/o, Glomeruli meaning "Glomerulus" or "to wind into a ball" (Plural)
Renal Pelvis area of the kidney where the nephrons collect urine before entering that ureters.
Pyel/o meaning "renal pelvis"
Calyces (Calyx) irregular cup size spaces that collect urine from the kidney, and the renal pelvis collects it from here. (Singular)
Hilus concave depression that serves as the point of attachment of the renal blood vessels, nerves, and ureter.
Ureters a pair of narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Ureter/o meaning "Ureter"
Trigone where the ureters enter the Urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder a singular hollow muscular organ that holds urine
Cyst/o meaning "urinary bladder"
Urination, Excretion, Voiding, Elimination, Micturition All used to describe the act of excreting urine.
Sphincter ringlike muscles that close off a passageway so that fluid cannot pass through.
Urethra a tube extending from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
Urethr/o meaning "urethra"
Urethral Meatus external opening of the urethra
Meat/o meaning "opening"
Erythropoietin hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
Antidiuretic hormone hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that suppresses urine formation by reabsorbing more water. abbr ADH
Aldosterone hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte balance via the reabsorption of sodium
Uropoiesis the process of urine production
-poiesis meaning "formation"
-chrome meaning "color"
Turbid classification used to describe urine that is cloudy, brown, white, or another color
Cystocentesis surgical puncture of the urinary bladder, usually to collect urine.
Cystography radiographic study of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter.
Cystogram the radiographic film of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter
Retrograde going backward and can be used to describe the path that contrast material takes.
Cystoscopy visual exam of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument.
Cytoscope the fiberoptic instrument used to access the interior of the urinary bladder.
intravenous Pyelogram radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which a dye is injected into a vein to define structures more clearly. abbr IVP
Pneumocystography radiographic study of the urinary bladder after air has been placed in the bladder via a urethral catheter
Radiography imaging of internal structures that is created by exposing specialized film onto x-rays.
Scout Film a plain x-ray made without the use of contrast material
Retrograde Pyelogram radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which contrast material is placed directly in the urinary bladder.
Urinalysis exam on Urine components. abbr. UA 3 types: Macroscopic (Gross exam), Microscopic, Chemical
Urinary Catheterization insertion of a tube through the urethra into the urinary bladder. abbr cath
Catheter the hollow tube that is inserted into a body cavity to inject or remove fluid.
Albuminuria presence of the major blood protein in urine
Anuria complete suppression of urine production
Bacteriuria presence of bacteria in urine
Crystalluria urine with naturally produced angular solid of definitive form (crystals)
Dysuria difficult or painful urination
Glucosuria, Glycosuria Glucose (sugar) in urine
Hematuria blood in urine
Ketonuria presence of ketones in urine (produced during increased fat metabolism)
Nocturia excessive urination at night
Noct/i meaning "night"
Oliguria scant or little urine
Pollakiuria frequent urination
Pollak/i meaning "many times"
Polyuria excessive urination
Proteinuria presence of proteins in urine
Pyuria pus in urine
Stranguria slow or painful urination
Urobilinogen (Urine Test) used more commonly in humans, evaluates liver disease or breakdown of red blood cells, not very useful in veterinary medicine
Glucose (Urine Test) used to screen for diabetes mellitus, the kidneys can't conserve all the sugar once the level becomes too high, also used to monitor diabetics
Ketones (Urine Test) presence of ketones is typical of an animal with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Ketones result when metabolism has shifted form carbohydrates to lipids.
Bilirubin (Urine Test) Bilirubin is formed in the breakdown process of hemoglobin. you will find Bilirubin in urine in a patient with liver disease or excessive blood cell breakdown
Protein (Urine Test) Proteins are not usually filtered into urine. proteins will be present in disease of the glomerulus (making it leaky) or with inflammation or the urinary tract (bladder infection) small amounts of protein can be detected in concentrated urine.
Blood (Urine Test) the blood may not be visibly seen, blood may be present in diseases that cause inflammation of the urinary tract, bladder infections, stones, tumors, trauma, bleeding disorders can all show blood in urine.
pH (Urine Test) pH is influenced by diet and disease states in the body. Acidic = typical in carnivores or animal with acidosis, Base (Alkaline) = typical of cereal grain diets eaters, some urinary tract infections, and alkalosis
Azotemia presence of urea or other nitrogenous elements in the blood.
Azot/o meaning "urea or nitrogen"
Calculus abnormal mineral deposit. Urine may contain crystals that remain in solution in urine. Stones, calculi, and liths are formed with crystals precipitate and form solids.
Lith/o, -lith meaning "stone or calculus" with modifiers for which system it comes from ex. urinary calculus, urolith, kidney stone
Casts fibrous or protein materials found in urine with renal disease or another abnormality
Crystals naturally produced angular solid of definite form
Crystalgia, Cystodynia urinary bladder pain
Cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder
Cystocele displacement of the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall
Epispadias abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease common disease of cats in which cystitis, urethritis, and crystalluria are found, formerly called Feline Urologic Syndrome (FUS) abbr. FLUTD
Glomerulonephritis inflammation of the kidney involving the glomeruli
Hydronephritis dilation of the renal pelvis as a result of an obstruction to urine flow
hydroureter distention of the ureter with urine caused by any blockage
Hypospadias abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis
Inappropriate urination eliminating urine at the wrong time or in the wrong place
Incontinence inability to control excretory functions. The term urinary often is applied in front.
Interstitial Cystitis inflammation within the wall of the urinary bladder
-lithiasis meaning "presence of stones or calculi" ex. nephrolithiasis
Nephrolithiasis disorder characterized by the presence of kidney stones
Urolithiasis disorder characterized by the presence of bladder stones
Ureterolithiasis disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the ureters
Nephrectasis distention of the kidneys
Distention meaning "enlargement"
-ectasis meaning "distention or stretching"
Nephritis inflammation of the kidneys
Nephrolith kidney stone or renal calculus
Nephromalacia abnormal softening of the kidney
Nephropathy disease of the kidney
Nephrosclerosis abnormal hardening of the kidney
Nephrosis abnormal condition of the kidney
Prerenal before the kidney (used to describe other pathologic conditions ex. prerenal azotemia)
Postrenal after the kidney (used to describe other pathologic conditions ex. postrenal obstruction)
Prolapse downward displacement of a body organ
-ptosis meaning "drooping, or dropping down"
Nephroptosis prolapsed kidney
Pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
Pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
Renal Failure inability of the kidneys to function
Acute Renal Failure kidney failure that occurs suddenly or over a short period of time abbr. ARF
Chronic Renal Failure Kidney failure that has a longer, or progressive onset. abbr. CRF
Nephrotoxin a poison having destructive effects on the kidneys, can cause acute renal failure
Polyuria elevated urine production abbr. PU
Polydipsia excessive thirst or drinking abbr. PD
Diuresis elevated excretion of urine, may be produced by fluid therapy or drug therapy
Diuretics drug that increase urine production
Renal infarction obstruction of blood flow to the kidneys
Uremia waste products in the blood. seen with many types of kidney disease
Ureterectasis distention of the ureters
Ureterolith stone in the ureters
Urethritis inflammation of the urethra
Urethrolithiasis disorder characterized by the presence of urethral stones
Urethrolith urethral stone
Urethrostenosis stricture of the urethra
Stricture an abnormal band of tissue narrowing a passage
Urinary retention inability to completely empty the urinary bladder
Urinary tract infection invasion of microorganisms in the urinary system which results in local cellular injury abbr. UTI
Urolith, Cystolith urinary bladder stones
Cystectomy surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
Cystopexy surgical fixation of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall
Cystoplasty surgical repair of the urinary bladder
Cystostomy surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and urinary bladder
Cystotomy surgical incision into the urinary bladder
Dialysis procedure to remove blood waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning
Peritoneal Dialysis the removal of blood waste products by fluid exchange through the peritoneal cavity
Hemodialysis the removal of blood waste products by filtering the blood through a machine abbr. HD
Lithotripsy destruction of stone using ultrasonic waves traveling through water
-tripsy meaning "to crush"
Nephroectomy surgical removal of a kidney
Nephropexy surgical fixation of a kidney to the abdominal wall
Nephroplasty surgical repair of the kidney
Nephrostomy surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and kidney
Ureterectomy surgical removal of the ureter
Ureteroplasty surgical repair of the ureter
Ureterotomy surgical incision into the ureter
Urethroplasty surgical repair of the urethra
Urethrostomy surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and skin
Perineal Urethrostomy surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin between the anus and scrotum
Urethrotomy surgical incision into the urethra
Urinalysis a test to breakdown the contents of urine abbr. UA
ADH antidiuretic hormone
AKI acute kidney injury
ARF acute renal failure
BUN blood urea nitrogen
cath catheterization
CRF chronic renal failure
CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy
FLUTD feline lower urinary tract disease
FUS feline urologic syndrome
GRF glomerular filtration rate
HD hemodialysis
IHD intermittent hemodialysis
IVP intravenous pyelogram
K+ potassium
Na+ sodium
PU polyuria
SG specific gravity
UA urinalysis
UTI urinary tract infection
Created by: dmweaver