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Hawaii Sprayer Cert

Hawaii State Pesticide Applicator Certification Test

Host A plant or animal on or which a pest lives.
Juvenile Hormones Natural insect chemicals that keep earlier stages of an insect from changing into normal adult form.
Labeling The pesticide product label and other accompanying materials that contain directions that pesticide users are legally required to follow.
Mycoplasmas Smallest known living organisms that can reproduce and exist apart from other living organisms. Food obtained from plants
Nematodes Small, usually microscopic, eel-like roundworms
Non-target Organisms Any plant or animal other than the pest that is being controlled
Parasite An organism living on, in, or with another organism for the purpose of obtaining food
Pathogen An organism that causes disease in other organisms
Phermones Chemicals emitted by an organism to influence the behavior of other organisms of the same species
Predator An organism that attacks, kills, and feeds on other organisms
Scouting Regularly searching for, identifying, and assessing numbers of pests and the damage they are causing
Pest Control - Prevention Keeping a pest from becoming a problem
Pest Control - Suppresion Reducing pest numbers or damage to an acceptable level
Pest Control - Eradication Destroying an entire pest population
Integrated Pest Management Combining of appropriate pest control tactics into single strategy to reduce pests and damage to an acceptable level
What is the first thing you should do when you detect the presence of a pest that you think you may need to control? Identify the pest to be sure you know exactly what the problem is.
How can pest identification help you develop a good pest control strategy? Identification of the pest allows you to determine basic information about it, including its life cycle and the time that it is most susceptible to being controlled.
Explain the differences between continuous pests, sporadic pests, and potential pests. Continuous are always present requiring regular control; sporadic are migratory, cyclical, requiring as needed control; potential are organisms that are not pests under normal conditions, but can become pests and require control in certain circumstances.
Explain what is meant byprevention, suppression, and eradication of pests. Prevention is keeping a pest from becoming a problem; suppression is reducing pest numbers or damage to an acceptable level; eradication is destroying an entire pest population.
What is a threshold? Why should you consider thresholds when you develop a pest control strategy? Thresholds: levels of pest populations at which pest control action is taken to prevent unacceptable damage or injury. Use of threshold information can improve pest control strategy by informing decisions about when to begin control tactics.
Describe pest monitoring and explain how it can be important to pest control strategy. Checking or scouting for pests to determine which are present, numbers and kinds in an area, and damage. It is important for Control strategies,to determine if the threshold has been reached and whether control measures have been effective.
Define "integrated pest management" (lPM) and list several possible control tactics that may be used in an IPM strategy. Combining of appropriate pest control tactics into one plan to reduce pests and damage to acceptable levels. Tactics may include: host resistance, biological control, cultural control, mechanical control, sanitation, and chemical (pesticide) control.
You applied a pesticide, but it did not control the pest. Name three reasons why your control effort might have failed. Pest resistance, choice of wrong pesticide, misidentifying the pest, applying the wrong amount, or applying the pesticide incorrectly.
What can you do to keep the pests you are trying to control from becoming resistant to the pesticides you use? Pest resistance can be reduced by using integrated pest management (IPM) and rotating the types of pesticides used.
Acute Effects Illness or injuries that may appear immediately after exposure to a pesticide (usually within 24 hours).
Allergic Effects Harmful effects, such as skin rash or asthma, that some people develop in reaction to pesticides that do not cause the same reaction in other people
Carrier The primary material used to allow a pesticide to be dispersed effectively, for example, the talc in a dust formulation, the water mixed with a wettable powder before a spray application, or the air that disperses pesticides in an air blast application
Delayed Effects Illnesses or injuries that do not appear immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure to a pesticide or combination of pesticides
Distributor Products Products that are produces and registered by a manufacturer or formulation and sold under a different name by a distributor
Oncogenicity The ability to cause tumors
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Devices and clothing worn to to protect the human body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues
Pesticide Handler Person who directly works with pesticides, such as during mixing, loading, transporting, storing, disposing, and applying, or working on pesticide equipment
Precautionary Statements Pesticide labeling statements that alert you to possible hazards from use of the pesticide product and that sometimes indicate specific actions to take to avoid the hazards
Target Pests The pest towards which control measures are being directed
FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act - Passed by Congress in 1947, amended in 1972, 1975, 1988. Regulates the registration, manufacture, sale, transportation, and use of pesticiades
Civil Penalties for FIFRA Violations $5,000 for commercial applicators, $1,000 for private applicators.
Criminal Penalties for FIFRA Violations $25,000 or 1 year in prison for commercial applicators, $1,000 or 30 days in prison for private applicators
Federal EPA Registrattions Most common. Most pesticide uses are registered this way. Look for the official EPA registration number (which must appear on the label) to be sure you are buying an approved product.
Special local Needs Registrations SLN or 24(c) registrations, States use to control pesticide use in jurisdiction, including additional uses or adding limitations. Involves adding application sites, pests. or alternate control techniques. Applicator must posses supplemental labeling.
Emergency Exemptions from Registration Section 18 Exemptions: Allows a pesticide product to be sold and used for a non-registered purpose for a specified period of time if Federal and SLN registrations would take too long to enact. Handled by the highest governing official involved.
DANGER signals that the pesticide is highly toxic. The product is very likely to cause acute illness from oral, dermal. or inhalation exposure, or to cause severe eye or skin irritation.
POISON/SKULL AND CROSSBONES All highly toxic pesticides that are very likely to cause acute illness through oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure. Pesticide Labeling also will carry the word POISON printed in red and the skull and crossbones symbol.
WARNING signals that the product is moderately likely to cause acute illness from oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure or that the product is likely to cause moderate skin or eye irritation
CAUTION signals that the product is slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic. The product has only slight potential to cause acute illness from oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure. The skin or eye irritation it would cause, if any, is likely to be slight.
Explain the differences between the terms "label" and "labeling. " The label is the information printed on or attached to the pesticide container. Labeling includes the label itself, plus all other information you receive from the manufacturer about the product when you buy it.
What do the words "Restricted Use Pesticide" tell you about the pesticide product? Product is likely to harm people or the environment if it is not used correctly. It may be purchased and used only by certified applicators and those under their direct supervision.
Where would you look to find out whether a pesticide is classified as Restricted Use? box on the front panel of the pesticide label
Chemical Name Complex name that identifies the chemical components and structure of the pesticide.
Common Name Shorter name that EPA recognizes as a substitute for the chemical name of a product.
Brand Name Usually a trademark name - used by a chemical company to identify a proprietary pesticide product.
Which term should you use to most accurately identify a pesticide product? The common name (or the chemical name, if no common name is given) is the most useful way to identify a pesticide product.
Name and explain the meaning of the signal words and symbols you may see on a pesticide product, Caution: slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic. Warning: moderately toxic. Danger: highly toxic. Poison and the skull and crossbones: highly toxic as a poison, rather than as a skin or eye irritant.
Can you use the signal word on a pesticide label to judge the likelihood of suffering acute, delayed, or allergic effects if you are overexposed to the product? Explain. Signal words and symbols indicate the likelihood that you will experience acute harmful effects if you are over-exposed. Signal words do not tell you anything about the risks of delayed harmful effects or allergic effects.
What types of hazard statements should you look for in the pesticide labeling? You should look for precautions about hazards to humans (and domestic animals), environmental hazards, and physical/chemical hazards.
What types of precautionary statements may be included in the labeling section titled "Hazards to Humans"'? Acute effects precautions, delayed effects precautions, allergic effect precautions, and personal protective equipment requirements.
What is the meaning of the statement: "It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling"? Illegal to use in ways other than permitted by the labeling. Use only on plants, animals, sites as directed. High dosages, concentrations, or more frequent applications are banned. Safety, mixing, diluting, storage, disposal, and PPE, orders are law.
Does the pesticide label contain all the instructions and directions for use that you need to use the product safely and legally? Pesticide users are required by law to comply with all instruction types, not just with the label itself. Directives may be in other labeling that accompanies the product at time of purchase or on separate documents that contain specialized instructions.
Abrasive Capable of wearing away or grinding down another object
Agitation The process of stirring or mixing
Alkaline The opposite of acidic; having a pH greater than 7
Dilute To make less concentrated
Emulsion A mixture of two or more liquids that are a not soluble in one another. One is suspended as small droplets in the other
Insoluble Does not dissolve in liquid
Non-target Any site or organism other than the site or pest toward which the control measures are being directed
Petroleum-based Made from petroleum products. Examples are; xylene, refined oil, and kerosene
Soluble Able to be dissolved in another substance, usually a liquid
Solvent A liquid, such as water, kerosene, xylene, or alcohol, that will dissolve a pesticide (or other substance) to form a solution
Suspension A substance that contains undissolved particles mixed throughout a liquid
Volatile Evaporating rapidly; turning easily into a gas or vapor
"S" Solutions: active ingredients dissolve readily in a liquid solvent., will not settle out or separate, may be used in any type of sprayer indoors or outdoors.
"RTU" Ready-to-Use: contain the correct amount of solvent. No dilution is required before application. Formulations are usually solutions in petroleum based solvents, containing small amounts (often 1 percent or less) of active ingredient per gallon.
"C" or "LC" Concentrates: must be further diluted with a liquid solvent before application. Occasionally the solvent is water, but more often the solvent is a specially refined oil or petroleum-based solvent.
"ULV" Ultra-Low-Volume: concentrates close to 100% active ingredient. Designed to be used as is or to be diluted with only small quantities of specified solvents. Used mostly in outdoor applications
"A" Aerosols: formulated with 1 or more active ingredients and a solvent. Most contain a low percentage of active ingredient. There are two types of aerosol formulations the ready-to-use type, and those made for use in smoke or fog generators.
"F" or "L" Flowables: Some active ingredients are insoluble solids. Finely ground active ingredients are mixed with a liquid, along with inert ingredients to form a suspension.
"EC" or "E" Emulsifiable Concentrates: Contains liquid active ingredient, 1 or more petroleum-based solvents, and an agent that allows the formulation to be mixed with water to form an emulsion. Most versatile formulations.
Each gallon of EC usually contains? 25 to 75 percent (2 to 8 pounds) active ingredient.
Invert Emulsions mixture of a water soluble pesticide dispersed in an oil carrier. Uses a special emulsifier so the pesticide can be mixed with a large volume of petroleum-based carrier, usually fuel oil. When applied, they form large droplets that do not drift easily.
"D" Dusts: Ready to use, contain a low percentage of active ingredient (usually 1/2 to 10 percent), plus a very fine dry inert carrier made from talc. chalk, clay, nut hulls, or volcanic ash. always used dry, and they easily drift into non-target sites.
"B" Baits: Active ingredient mixed with food or another attractive substance. active ingredient in most bait formulations is quite low, usually less than 5%. Used for control of vertebrate pests such as rodents, other mammals, and birds.
"G" Granules: active ingredient (1 to 15%) coats the outside of the granules or is absorbed into them. used to apply chemicals to the soil to control weeds, nematodes, and insects living in the soil. Used to control larval mosquitoes and aquatic pests.
"P" or "PS" Pellets: all the particles are the same weight and shape. The uniformity of the particles allows them to be applied by precision applicators such as those being used for precision planting of pelleted seed.
"WP" or "W" Wettable Powders; most widely used pesticide formulations. Used for most pest problems and in most types of spray equipment where agitation is possible. Contain 5 to 95% active ingredient. Usually 50% or more. must be mixed with water for spraying.
"SP" or "WSP" Soluble Powders: Mixed with water, the dissolve readily forming true solutions. No additional agitation is necessary. Inhalation hazard during mixing. Few pesticides are in this formulation because few active ingredients are soluble in water.
"WDG" or "DF" Water-Dispersible Granules or Dry Flowables: Must be mixed with water to be applied. Once in water. the granules break apart into fine powder. The formulation requires constant agitation to keep it suspended in water.
Fumigants Pesticides that form poisonous gases when applied. Active ingredients are liquids under high pressure that change to gases when released and other volatile liquids. Require the use of specialized PPE, including respirators.
Adjuvants Chemical added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase its effectiveness or safety.
Surfactants "surface active ingredients" adjuvant that alters the dispersing, spreading, and wetting properties of spray droplets.
Spreaders Adjuvant that allows pesticide to form a uniform coating layer over the treated surface.
Stickers Adjuvant that allows pesticide to stay on the treated surface.
Penetrants Adjuvant that allows the pesticide to get through the outer surface to the inside of the treated area.
Foaming Agents Adjuvant that reduces drift.
Thickeners Adjuvant that reduces drift by increasing droplet size.
Safeners Adjuvant that reduce the toxicity of a pesticide formulation to the pesticide handler or to the treated surface.
Compatibility Agents Adjuvant that aids in combining pesticides effectively,
Buffers Adjuvant that allows pesticides to be mixed with diluents or other pesticides of different acidity or alkalinity.
Anti-Foaming Agents Adjuvant that reduces foaming of spray mixtures that require vigorous agitation.
What is a pesticide formulation? Mixture of active and inert (inactive) ingredients that forms a pesticide product.
What is the difference between active ingredients and inert ingredients? Active ingredients are chemicals that control pests. Inert ingredients are the chemicals that are added to make the product safer, more effective, easier to measure, mix, and apply, and more convenient to handle.
What types of factors should you consider when you have a choice of formulations for a pest control task? for a pest control task? Characteristics of formula, advantages and disadvantages, the right equipment needed, safety of application method, will it reach the target and stay in place long enough to control the pest, will it harm the target site?
Given a choice to use a wettable powder or a granules for a particular pest control task, which would be best if drift were a major concern? Which would be best if you need the it to stay on a surface that is not level, such as foliage? Granules have a much lower drift hazard than wettable powders, but do not stick to nonlevel surfaces, so the wettable powder would be the best choice for uneven surfaces
Why are adjuvants sometimes added to pesticide formulations? Adjuvants are added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase its effectiveness or safety.
Given a choice of wettable powder or emulsifiable concentrate, which would be better when concerned about harming the treated surface? Which would be best if you were diluting with very hard or alkaline water? Wettable powder will not harm the treated surface, EC's are corrosive, cause pitting, discoloration, and damage to treated surfaces. Wettable powders are difficult to mix in very hard or alkaline water, EC’s are better for diluting in such water.
What type(s) of adjuvants should you consider for reducing drift? for coating a surface evenly? when you wish to combine two or more pesticides for one application? Foaming agents and thickeners help to reduce drift. Spreaders help to coat the treated surface with an even layer of pesticide. Compatibility agents aid in combining pesticides effectively.
Back-Siphoning The movement of liquid pesticide mixture back through the filling hose and into the water source
Collection Pad or Tray A safety system designed to contain and recover spills, rinsate, leaks, and other pesticide-containing substances
Concentrates Pesticides that have a high percentage of active ingredient
Endangered Species Organisms whose survival as a species has been designated by a Federal Agency as endangered or threatened
Ground Water Water beneath the earth's surface in soil or rock
Offsite Outside the area where the pesticide is being released
Release When a pesticide leaves its container or the equipment or system that is containing it and enters the environment. Can be intentional, as in an application, or by accidental spill or leak
Rinsate Pesticide-containing water, or other liquid, that results from rinsing a pesticide container, equipment, or materials
Runoff Movement of pesticide away from the release site in water or another liquid flowing horizontally across the surface
Surface Water Water on top of the earth's surface, such as lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, reservoirs, puddles, or storm water drains
Use Site The immediate environment where a pesticide is being mixed. loaded, applied, transported, stored, or disposed of. or where pesticide contaminated equipment is being cleaned
Point Source Pollution comes from a specific identifiable place or point. A pesticide spill that moves into a storm sewer is an example
Non-Point Source Pollution comes from a wide area. The movement of pesticides into streams after broadcast applications is an example.
What is the "environment"'? Everything that surrounds us - indoors and outdoors - including natural elements, manmade objects, people, and other living organisms.
Explain what is meant by point-source and non-point source contamination of the environment by pesticides, and give an example of each. Pollution that comes from a specific, identifiablc place Such as pesticide spill that moves into a storm sewer vs. pollution from a wide area, such as movement of pesticides into streams after broadcast applications.
Name some ways that careless pesticide handling could lead to point-source pollution. Mismanagement of wash water & spills produced cleanup sites. Improper disposal of containers. rinse water, & excess pesticides. Failure to clean up leaks & spills at pesticide storage sites. Spilling while mixing concentrates or loading into applicator.
What environmental factors should you consider any time you accidentally or intentionally release a pesticide into an environment'? Whether there sensitive areas in the environment, offsite near use site, enabling conditions for offsite movement, factors you can change to reduce environmental risk.
What is a "sensitive area? Give four examples of sensitive areas that you must be especially careful to protect when you are handling pesticides. Places that are easily hurt: Areas pesticides get into water; homes, schools,, hospitals, etc; Animals are endangered, bees, wildlife, livestock, pets; Crops, ornamental & sensitive plants are; Food is processed, stored, or served.
List three routes by which pesticides can move offsite. Air, through wind or air currents generated by ventilation systems. Water, through runoff or leaching. On or in objects, plants, or animals (including humans) that move or are moved offsite.
What factors influence whether a pesticide will move offsite in the air? 1. Droplet or particle size. 2. Height and direction of release. 3. Whether the pesticide tends to form vapors.
Name two circumstances that might cause a pesticide to move offsite in water. 1. Too much liquid pesticide is applied, leaked, or spilled onto a surface. 2. Too much rainwater, irrigation water, or wash water gets onto a surface that contains pesticide residue.
Give some examples of ways that pesticides can move offsite on or in objects, plants, or animals. sticking to shoes or clothing, animal fur, blowing dust or anything that moves from the use site to another location. Residues may remain on treated surfaces. such as food or feed products, when they are taken from the use site to be sold.
In addition to direct contact with the pesticide during application or through drift or runoff, how else may non-target plants and animals be harmed by a pesticide? Non-targets may be harmed by residues that stay in the environment for a long time; in soil or on surfaces, or build up in the bodies of animals, harming those animals themselves and sometimes other animals that feed on them.
What kinds of damage can some pesticides cause to surfaces? Discoloration, pitting and marked, corroded or obstructed, or left with a visible deposit.
Acute effects Illnesses or injuries that may appear immediately after exposure to a pesticide (usually within 24 hours).
Concentrates Pesticides that have a high percentage of active ingredient.
Delayed effects Illnesses or injuries that do no appear immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure to a pesticide or combination of pesticides.
Diluent Anything used to dilute a pesticide
Exposure Coming into contact with a pesticide; getting a pesticide on a surface or in or on an organism. Labeling - The pesticide product label and other accompanying materials that contain directions that
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States Department of Labor.
Residue The part of a pesticide that remains in the environment for a period of time following application or a spill.
Water-based pesticides pesticides that use water as the only diluent or carrier.
What should you tell the people who will be laundering your clothing about how to protect themselves from pesticides? Wear chemical-resistant gloves and apron, especially if handling contaminated items regularly or handling items contaminated with highly toxic pesticides. Work in a well-ventilated area and do not inhale steam from the washer and dryer.
What should you do with your respirator between handling tasks? Seal the respirator in a clean, airtight container, such as a sturdy zip-closable plastic bag. If possible, put caps over the opening on the cartridges or canisters.
What should you do with a coverall that has highly toxic pesticide concentrate spilled on it? Dispose of the coverall. It cannot be adequately cleaned.
What legal responsibility do you have for wearing the personal protective equipment that the pesticide labeling lists for your handling situation? By law, you must wear at least the personal protective equipment listed on the labeling for the handling task you will be performing. You are allowed to wear additional or more protective personal protective equipment.
Define the term "chemical resistant". Able to prevent movement or the pesticide through the material during the period of use.
How can you tell when a material is not chemical-resistant to the pesticide you are handling? The material may change color; become soft or spongy; swell or bubble up; dissolve or become like jelly; crack or get holes; become stiff or brittle.
What factors determine how well your coverall will protect your body'? It fits loosely with a layer of air between it and the skin or clothes, worn over another layer, so each layer adds a protective layer of air and layer of fabric, and has tightly constructed seams, snug overlapping closures that do not gap or unfasten.
When should you wear chemical-resistant gloves? Why are gloves so important to a pesticide handler? gloves any time you may get pesticides on your hands, except for some fumigants whose labeling may direct you not wear gloves. The hands are by far the most likely route of exposure for a pesticide handler
If you need to remove your gloves during the handling activity, what steps should you take to remove them and put them back on? Wash gloves thoroughly before taking them off. Wash hands thoroughly and dry them before putting the gloves on again.
Why do pesticides sometimes get on your skin even when you are wearing gloves and protective footwear? The items may not be chemical-resistant to the pesticide being handled; they may not be worn correctly; they may not be in good condition; or they may not have been cleaned correctly or replaced soon enough.
When should you wear protective headgear? What type of headgear should you use? Whenever exposed to pesticides from above, to help keep pesticides off your head, neck, eyes, mouth, and face. Wear a chemical-resistant hood or wide-brimmed hat. Plastic "safari" hats with plastic sweatbands are a good choice.
When the pesticide labeling calls for "protective eyewear," what should you wear? Wear goggles, a face shield, or safety glasses with brow and side shields.
What are the differences among dust/mist-filtering respirators, vapor-removing respirators, and air-supplying respirators? Masks or cartridges that filter dust, mists, and particles. Cartridge or canister to remove pesticide gases and vapors. Use of an air tank or air from a location where the air is not contaminated with pesticides.
What special hazards do fumigants pose for pesticide handlers? Serious inhalation hazard to pesticide handlers, also they can cause severe skin bums if they are trapped next to the skin by tight clothing or chemical-resistant PPE.
If the chemical-resistant gloves you have selected are reusable, how often should you routinely replace them? Under what conditions should you replace chemical-resistant items immediately? Throw out most that have been worn for about 5 to 7 days. Those made of butyl or nitrile rubber, may last as long as 10 to 14 days. Replace chemical-resistant items immediately if they show any sign of wear or have holes, tears, or leaks.
How will you know when to replace dust/mist masks, pre-filters? Change immediately if you have trouble breathing. They usually need to be changed at least every 8 hours.
How will you know when to replace vapor-removing canisters and cartridges'? Change if you smell, taste, or feel irritation, by date of "service life indicator", or after the time limit set by the manufacturer. Otherwise, replace them after about 8 hours of use
What should you do when you are finished using your respirator for the day? Discard any masks, filters, or respirators that cannot be reused, remove prefilters/cartridges/canisters. Discard them or, if still usable, replace their caps and seal them in an airtight container, such as a zip-closable plastic bag.
What should you do when you wash your respirator at the end of the day? Wash body, facepiece, and any reusable filters. Soak them for at least 2 minutes in a mixture of 2 tablespoons of chlorine bleach in a gallon of hot water. Rinse thoroughly. Dry thoroughly or hang them in a clean area to dry.
Where should you keep your respirator at the end of the day? Store the respirator and any reusable cartridges, canisters, filters, and prefilters in an airtight container in an area where they are protected from dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and pesticides or other chemicals.
Cuticle Thin, fatty outer surface on the leaves of some plants
Decontamination Removal of pesticide from surfaces or organisms that are exposed so no further harm or damage can occur
Drift Pesticide movement away from the release site in the air.
Emulsifier Chemical that allows petroleum-based pesticides (ECʻs) to mix with water
Eyewash dispenser Commercially available system for flushing contaminants out of the eyes.
Heat stress Illness that occurs when the body is subjected to more heat than it can cope with.
Leaching The movement of pesticide in water or another liquid downward through soil or another planting medium.
Liability Legal responsibility
Organic matter Materials and debris that originated as living plants or animals
Pesticide handling Directly working with pesticides, such as during mixing, loading, transporting, storing, disposing, and applying, or working on pesticide equipment.
Porous surfaces Surfaces that have tiny openings which allow liquid to be absorbed or to pass through. Protectant fungicide - Pesticide applied to prevent the development of some plant diseases by fungi.
Systemic pesticide Pesticide that is absorbed and circulated by a plant or animal so that the plant or animal is toxic to pests that feed on it.
If heat stress is a concern when you schedule a pesticide application, what five factors might you need to adjust? Heat factors, workload, personal protective equipment, amount of water consumed, and the work schedule
Name four conditions at the application site that may influence some of the decisions you make about the application. Type of space or surface to be treated; surface cleanliness; surface moisture; temperature; humidity; presence of direct sunlight; possibility of rain or watering; air movement.
List some consequences of the incorrect use of pesticides. wasted material, failure to control pest, damage to target site. Immediate and long-term harmful effects to humans, living things, property, and environment. fines and legal actions. Extra cost of pesticides
Name at least four factors that you should consider when you must choose among different formulations. Will formulation will cause harm to plants, animals, or surfaces in the application site. Equipment available. Hazard of drift or run-off Risk to exposed. Pest habits or growth pattern. Surface. Cost.
What eight basic safety questions should you ask yourself whenever you or those you supervise will be using pesticides? Labeling read? How to avoid exposure? PPE needed? Equipment ready &safe? How to avoid accidental spread of pesticides? instructed the handlers I supervise? Emergency preparedness? People and animals out of the area?
Active ingredients The chemicals in a pesticide product that control the target pest.
Agitate To stir or mix
Formulation Pesticide product as sold, usually a mixture of active and inert ingredients
Sensitive area Sites or organisms that are particularly vulnerable to harmful effects from pesticides.
Toxicity Measure of a pesticideʻs ability to cause acute, delayed or allergic effects.
What two methods of rinsing can you use? Triple rinsing and pressure rinsing.
What should you do with rinsate that you create when you clean your pesticide equipment? Collect the rinsate. Reuse it, if possible, or dispose of it as excess pesticide.
What are closed mixing and loading systems? Systems designed to prevent pesticide from coming in contact with handlers or other persons during mixing and loading.
What are enclosed application systems? An enclosure, such as a cab or cockpit, that surrounds the occupants and prevents them from coming in contact with pesticides outside of the enclosure.
When should you consider installing a pesticide containment system? If you often mix and load pesticides in one place, or if you often clean equipment at one location.
What are the advantages of pesticide containment systems? Save time & money, spill cleanup is easier, reduce waste by reuse of rinse water & spill cleanup water, and help prevent the harm that spills and runoff can cause to the environment or to people.
What safety procedures should you follow each time you apply a pesticide? Delivery to target site. Check the delivery rate. Check for appearance. Avoid non-target organisms. Avoid non-target surfaces. Operate equipment safely.
When you are finished with a mixing, loading, or application task, what should you do right away? Wash equipment & self. Return equipment to designated place. Safely store or dispose of all pesticide materials and chemicals. Work site safety. Record application & site conditions.
When you are finished with pesticide handling tasks, what steps should you take for personal cleanup? Wash the outside of your gloves first, before taking them off. Then carefully peel back your personal protective equipment to avoid getting pesticides on your skin. Remove any other clothing that has pesticide on it
Why should you keep records of pesticide applications? Proof of proper use. Save money by improving pest control practices & efficiency. Reduce pesticide mistakes or misuse. Reduce carryover by buying only the amount of pesticides you will need.
Tip-and-pour Built-in measuring device that fills with a given amount of pesticide when the container is tilted
Why is it so important to apply the correct amount of pesticide to the target site? If you apply too little pesticide, you may not fully control the pest. Overdosing may cause damage or injuries, leave illegal residues, and cause you to be fined or to be liable for damages.
Where can you find out how much pesticide to apply? From the "Directions for Use" section of the pesticide labeling, and from other sources. such as consultants, industry organizations, pest or pesticide specialists, Cooperative Extension agents, university specialists, or pesticide dealers.
Why is it important to calibrate some types of pesticide application equipment? Many types of pesticide application equipment must be calibrated so that the correct amount of pesticide will be released to the target site.
How do you calculate the application rate? The amount of pesticide dispersed, divided by the distance covered, is the application rate.
Why should you recheck equipment calibration frequently? Clogging, corrosion, and wear may change the delivery rate, or the settings may gradually get out of adjustment.
What pesticide formulations must be diluted before application? You must dilute all formulations except those that are sold as ready-to-use products or those designed to be applied full strength.
What information do you need to get from the pesticide labeling or other sources before you can dilute pesticides correctly? Read the pesticide labeling or consult recommendations from other sources to find out what to use to dilute the formulation; how much to dilute the formulation; and how much of the dilute pesticide to apply per unit of area.
What information do you need to know about your own situation before you can calculate how much pesticide and diluent to combine to achieve the correct amount of dilute pesticide mixture in your application equipment? You must know how much your equipment holds when full or how much mixture you will need to complete the job; how much mixture your equipment applies per unit of area; and the size of the site you need to treat.
Decontaminate Remove pesticide from surfaces or organisms that are exposed so no further harm or damage can occur.
Nonporous surfaces Surfaces that have no openings to allow liquid to be absorbed or pass through.
Sensitive Particularly vulnerable to harm from pesticide exposure.
When should you have a spill kit on hand? Every time a pesticide or pesticide container is handled.
Who can you call when you need help to manage a spill? Chemtrec; emergency numbers on pesticide labeling; police department or highway patrol; fire department; public health department
What should cleanup include? Clean up the spill; decontaminate the spill site; neutralize the spill site, if necessary; decontaminate equipment; decontaminate yourself.
How should you contain a spill? Confine the spill; protect water resources; absorb liquids; cover dry materials.
What should you do to control a spill situation? Protect yourself; stop the source of the spill; protect others; stay at the site.
What do the three Cʻs of spill management stand for? Control, Contain, Clean up.
List three ways to avoid the need for disposing of empty pesticide containers as wastes. Use refillable containers; recycle or recondition the containers; use soluble packaging.
If you have pesticide wastes (other than empty containers) what can you do with them? Dispose in a hazardous waste landfill or pesticide incinerator or store until disposal is possible.
If you have excess pesticide materials that are still usable, what can you do with them? . Apply them to a site listed on the labeling; find someone else who can legally use them; return them to the dealer, formulator, or manufacturer
List four actions that you should take to maintain a safe storage site. . Prevent contamination; keep labels legible; keep containers closed; use original containers; watch for damage; store volatile products separately; isolate waste products; know your inventory; consider shelf life.
List four actions that you should take to establish a safe storage site. Keep unauthorized people out; prevent water damage; control the temperature; provide adequate lighting; use nonporous materials; prevent runoff; provide clean water.
What precautions should you take when you transport pesticides in a vehicle? Never; carry in passenger section. allow passengers, to ride with pesticides, transport with food, clothing, leave your vehicle unattended or unlocked. Consider transporting volatiles pesticides in separate trip.
When a pesticide container is damaged, what actions can you take? Use immediately at a site and rate allowed by the labeling. Transfer into another same container and has the still intact label.
What steps should you take to protect pesticide containers during transport? Transport containers with intact, undamaged, and readable labels. Inspect containers. Handle carefully. Anchor securely. Protect from moisture & extreme temperatures.
As a Hawaii-certified applicator, you are responsible for making and keeping a record for each application (in Hawaii) of a restricted use pesticide that you bought or otherwise acquired. Responsible Persons
You must maintain each record for two years at the principle place of business. Maintaining Records
The Hawaii Department of Agriculture’s pesticides inspectors may request and inspect your records during reasonable working hours. They must show you their government identification card at the start of the inspection. Inspection of Records
Brand name or common name of pesticide product, EPA registration number of pesticide product, Type of formulation of pesticide product, Scientific or common name of target pest, Dilution Rate, Total amount of pesticide product used, Time and Date , Information to Record
Hawaii Pesticides Law (Chapter 149A), Part III, Section 31 (3 No person shall ... use or apply restricted pesticides unless the person is a certified pesticide applicator or under the direct supervision of a certified pesticide applicator with a valid certificate issued [by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
Hawaii Pesticides Law (Chapter 149A), Part I, Section 2 (34) a pesticide shall be applied under the direct supervision of a certified applicator if it is applied by a competent person acting under the control of a certified applicator who is available if and when needed, doesn't need to be there in person.
Administrative Rules, Chapter 66, Section 2 “Competent" means the state of being able and qualified to perform a particular function in pesticide application, the degree of competence being directly related to the nature of the activity and the associated responsibility;
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates wastes under the? Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
Who regulates hazardous waste in Hawaiʻi? Solid and Hazardous Waste Branch, Hawaiʻi Department of Health,
What can I do about old and unused pesticides in Hawaiʻi? Consult an environmental health specialist at one of the Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture’s Pesticides Branch offices
Can I burn pesticide containers in Hawaiʻi? No. Fire departments do not give permission to burn any trash in open air fires. Toxic smoke comes from pesticide residue in burning containers. Open air fires can spread and cause other fires.
Can I bury pesticide containers in Hawaiʻi? Burying pesticide containers is not recommended because it could cause two kinds of long-term problems
Categories of Generators of Hazardous Waste Conditionally exempt small quantity generator Small quantity generator Large quantity generator
Acutely hazardous waste To learn if EPA classified your unwanted pesticide as “acutely hazardous,” check these sources:
Large quantity generator generate more than 1,000 kilograms (2,200 pounds or about 300 gallons) of hazardous waste or no more than 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste in any month, you are required to comply with all applicable hazardous waste management rules.
Small quantity generator generate more than 100 and less than 1,000 kilograms (between 220 and 2,200 pounds or about 25 to under 300 gallons) of hazardous waste or no more than 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste, in any month:
Conditionally exempt small quantity generator generate not more than 100 kilograms (about 220 pounds or 25 gallons) of hazardous waste or no more than 1 kilogram (about 2.2 pounds) of acutely hazardous waste) in any calendar month, you are required to:
Hawaiʻi Occupational Safety and Health Law. The Hawaiʻi Department of Labor and Industrial Relations administers the HOSHL
The Hawaiʻi Department of Labor and Industrial Relations administers the HOSHL, Hawaiʻi Occupational Safety and Health Law.
HOSHL, Initial training s conducted when an employee is first assigned to work with the chemical (as in the case of a new employee).
HOSHL, On-going training is conducted on a regular basis to review information presented during the initial training. How often this is done depends on the seriousness of the hazards.
HOSHL, Additional training is conducted when new hazards (such a new hazardous chemicals) appear in the workplace.
Hawaiʻi Occupational Safety and Health Standards is a set of rules and regulations used as guides for enforcing the HOSHL. These Standards are part of the State of Hawaiʻi’s regulations and are officially designated as Title 12 (Dept. of Labor and Industrial Relations) Subtitle 8 (Division of Occupational Safety and Health) Part 8 (Health Standards).
HEPCRA Hawaii Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
HEPCRA, Chemical leak, spill, or fire reporting You could be required to notify a state and a county govern- ment agency if a certain amount of your pesticide spills, leaks, or burns. There are a few exceptions.
HEPCRA, Chemical inventory reporting Required to make a report to several government agencies on a special form if you have a minimum amount of a some pesticides. This is an annual report. There are exceptions for chemicals used in routine agricultural operations and 4 other situations.
HEPCRA, Chemical emergency notification and planning required to notify several government agencies if you have pesticides classified by the federal government as an extremely hazardous substance. (This is a one-time notification.) and required to do chemical emergency planning with those agencies.
Hawaii’s Emergency Response Law (ERL) is about reporting a chemical release from any facility in Hawaii. This law covers pesticides because they are chemicals classified by the federal government as a hazardous substances.
The Hawaii Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act (HEPCRA) is about reporting a release of any chemical classified by the federal government as an extremely hazardous substance. It is also about emergency planning notification and chemical inventory reporting in Hawaii.
A federal law, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act (EPCRA) is the basis for the HEPCRA. This federal law is also called “SARA Title III” or Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.
Aquifer geologic body (such as a formation of rock or soil) which is porous and permeable enough to become saturated with water and yields water when wells are drilled into it.
Recharge water that soaks into the ground and adds to aquifers. Rainwater is the main source of recharge in Hawai'i.
BASAL AQUIFERS form in the base (at sea level) of some Hawaiian islands (those with caprock1) such as Maui and O'ahu.
HIGH-LEVEL AQUIFERS occur well above sea level. Two types of high­ level aquifers can be found in Hawai'i: perched aquifers and dike-confined aquifers. They form underground where downward moving water is held up by impermeable layers of soil or dense older lava flows
Caprock forms like an apron on the island's coastal margins. It reduces the flow of fresh water from a basal aquifer outward to the surrounding ocean and allows a thicker zone of fresh water to accumulate
Dike formed when magma (molten rock deep in the earth) is forced upward through rock or soil near the surface. less permeable to water than surrounding rock in which they formed and can slow the outward flow of water towards the coast.
If a local situation calls for the pesticide application site to be evaluated first, the Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture may require the pesticide buyer to first obtain a single-purchase permit
The Hawaiʻi Department of Agriculture may declare a pesticide as restricted if the pesticide product bulletin (or other endangered species labeling) would be too complicated; or the pesticide is likely to be misused.
What is a Special Local Need labeling (SLN)? printed instructions for using a pesticide to treat a minor crop (such as taro), object (such as plant containers), or site (such as “off-shore islands”).
Hawaii’s SLN labeling Currently, about 50 SLN labelings are active in Hawaii
An SLN labeling usually expires? 5 years after the Hawaii Department of Agriculture issues it. An expiration date appears on each SLN labeling. If the expiration date has passed, the SLN labeling is not valid.