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Ch. 6 Gut Instincts

Veterinary Medical Terminology

Aliment/o meaning nourishment (combining term for digestive tract)
Oral cavity contains the lips, cheeks, hard and soft palate, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and periodontium
Alimentary, Gastrointestinal, GI System Digestive system comprised of long muscular tubes that start at the mouth and end at the anus.
Or/o, Stomat/o meaning "mouth"
Gnath/o meaning "jaw"
Prognathia elongated mandible
Brachygnathia shortened mandible
Labia, Labium (singular) medical term for "lips"
Cheil/o, Labi/o meaning "lips"
Buccal pertaining to, or directed towards the cheek of the mouth
Bucc/o meaning "cheek"
Palate roof of the mouth
Hard Palate forms the bony rostral portion of the palate with special mucus membranes
Rugae specialized mucus membranes that contain irregular folds
Rug/o meaning "wrinkle or fold"
Soft Palate forms the flexible caudal portion of the palate
Palat/o meaning "Palate"
Tongue the movable muscle in the mouth that is used for tasting, and processing food.
Papillae elevations on the dorsum of the tongue
Frenulum the connective tissue that connects the tongue to the ventral surface of the mouth
Gloss/o, Lingu/o meaning "tongue"
Dent/o, Dent/i, Odont/o meaning "teeth"
Dentition refers to the teeth as a whole
Deciduous Dentition (milk teeth) temporary set of teeth that erupt in young animals and are replaced at or near maturity
Decidu/o meaning "shedding"
Permanent Dentition the set of teeth designed to last the lifespan of the animal
Mixed Dentition the period when both Deciduious and Permanent Teeth are present in the same mouth
Retained Deciduous Tooth a tooth that has not been shed, and may need to be removed professionally
Incisor front tooth used for cutting
Canine (needle teeth) long, bonelike tooth located between the incisors and Premolars. (also called fang and cuspid)
Premolar (cheek teeth) cheek tooth found between canine and molar teeth
Molar (cheek teeth) most caudally located permanent tooth
Dental Formula representation of the type of tooth and the number of each
Selenodont animals that have crescents on their grinding surfaces (ruminants)
Lophodont animals with teeth that have ridged occlusal surfaces (equine)
Bunodont animals with teeth that have worn, rounded surfaces (swine)
Hypsodont animals with continuosly erupting teeth (chek teeth of ruminants)
Pleurodont animals with teeth attached by one side on the inner jaw (lizards)
Brachydont animals with permanently rooted teeth
Enamel hard white substance covering the dentin of the crown of the tooth
Cementum the bone like connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth
Dentin the connective tissue surrounding the tooth pulp
Pulp consists of nerves, blood vessels, and loose connective tissue
Apical Foramen the hole at the tip of the root where nerve and blood vessels enter the tooth
Periodontia structures that support the teeth
Alveoli sockets or sac-like dilations that the teeth are situated in.
Alveolar Bone a thin layer of compact bone that forms the tooth socket
Periodontal Ligament fibrous structure that holds the tooth in the alveolus
Gingiva mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth and forms the mouth lining
Gingiv/o meaning "gums"
Gingival Sulcus the space that surrounds the tooth, located between the tooth and the gingival margin
Salivary Glands a group of cells located in the oral cavity that secrete a clear substance containing digestive enzymes
Saliva moistens food, begins digestive process by aiding in bolus formation and some digestive enzyme activity, also cleans the mouth
Manibular Salivary Gland found near the mandible
Sublingual Salivary Gland found under the tongue
Zygomatic Salivary Gland found medial to the zygomatic arch
Parotid Salivary Gland found near the ear
Sialaden/o, Sial/o meaning "salivary gland"
Endodontics branch of dentistry that involves treatment of diseases that affect tooth pulp
Exodontics branch of dentistry that involves extraction of teeth and related processes
Oral Surgery branch of surgery that involved correction of the jaw, gums, and inside of the mouth
Orthodontics branch of dentistry that involves the guidance and correction of Malocclusion
Periodontics the branch of dentistry that studies and treats diseases of tooth supporting structures
Pharynx (Throat) the caudal oral cavity that joins the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems
Pharyng/o meaning "pharynx"
Mastication chewing
Ingesta the material that is taken in orally
Hypersalivation (Ptyalism/Hypersialosis) excessive production of saliva
sial/o, ptyal/o meaning "sailva"
Deglutition swallowing
Phag/o meaning "eating or ingesting"
Esophagus a collapsible, muscular tube that leads from the oral cavity to the stomach, located dorsal to the trachea
Esophag/o meaning "esophagus"
Sphincter a ring like muscle that constricts an opening
Abdomen cavity located between the diaphragm and pelvis
Abdomin/o, Celi/o, Lapar/ois meaning "abdomen or flank"
Peritoneum the membrane lining that covers the abdominal and pelvic cavities and some organs in that area
Parietal Peritoneum the layer that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Visceral Peritoneum covers the abdominal organs
Lesser Omentum a fold of peritoneum that the stomach is connected to
Greater Omentum a fold of peritoneum on the dorsal abdominal wall that connects to the stomach
Gastr/o meaning "stomach"
Monogastric animals with one true glandular stomach
Ruminant has 3 forestomachs that are actually out pouchings of the esophagus
Glandular Stomach the one that produces secretions for digestion
Cardia entrance area of stomach, located nearest to the esophagus
Fundus base of an organ, which is the cranial, rounded part
Body (Corpus) the main portion of an organ, which is the ounded base or bottom
Antrum caudal part of the stomach which is the constricted part that joins with the pylorus
Pylorus narrow passage between the stomach and duodenum
Pylor/o meaning "gatekeeper"
Pyloric Sphincter muscle ring that constricts the flow of matieral
Regurgitate passive action of ingesta moving from the stomach or esophagus back to the mouth
Remasticate to chew again
Intestinal Flora normal microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract
Rumen (Paunch) largest compartment of the ruminant stomach that serves as fermentation vat
Reticulum (Honeycomb) most cranial compartment of the ruminant stomach
Omasum third compartment of ruminant stomach, has short papillae that grind food
Abmasum fourth compartment of ruminant stomach, also called true stomach
Mesentery a fold of peritoneum that is attached to the abdominal wall and the small intestine
Gastroenterology the study of the stomach and small intestine
Enter/o meaning "small intestine"
Duodenum proximal or 1st portion of small intestine
Duoden/i, Duoden/o meaning "duodenum"
Jejunum middle portion of the small intestine
Jejun/o meaning "jejunum"
Ileum distal, most aboral, or last portion of the small intestine
Ile/o meaning "ileum"
Cecum 1st section of the large intestine
Cec/o meaning "cecum"
Colon middle portion of the large intestine, has ascending, transverse, and descending portions
Col/o meaning "colon"
Haustra the cecum and colon of pigs and horses are sacculated
Rectum Caudal portion of the large intestine
Rect/o meaning "rectum"
Anus controlled by to sphincter muscles that tighten and relax to allow or control defecation
An/o meaning "anus"
Anorectal pertaining to the anus and rectum
Proct/o meaning "anus and rectum"
Anal Sacs sacs lined with microscopic anal glands that secrete foul smelling fluid
Flexures bends of curves in the large intestine
Pelvic Flexures a bend in the colon near the pelvis
Diaphragmatic Flexure a bend in the colon near the diaphragm
Liver located caudal to the diaphragm
Hepat/o meaning "liver"
Glucose material that the liver filters out
Hypoglycemia a condition when the blood sugar is low
Hepatocytes liver cells
Sinusoids meaning "channels"
Bile Liver produces this to aid in digestion
Biliary meaning "bile"
Emulsification fat digestion
Bilirubin a pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin that is released in teh liver
Cyst/o meaning "sac, cyst, urinary bladder"
Gallbladder sac that is embedded in the liver that stores bile
Chol/e meaning "bile, or gall"
Doch/o meaning "receptical"
Cholecystic meaning "gallbaldder"
Choledochus meaning "common bile duct"
Pancreas elongated gland located near the cranial portion of the duodenum
Pancreat/o meaning "pancreas"
Trypsin an enzyme that digests protein
Lipase and enzyme that digests fat
Amylase and enzyme that digests carbohydrates
Digestion process of breaking down food into nutrients that the body can use
Enzymes substances that chemically change another substance
Metabolism the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
Meta-, meaning "beyond"
Anabolism the building of body cells and substances
Catabolism the breaking down of body cells
Absorption the process of taking digested nutrients into the circulatory system
Nutient a substance needed by our bodies to sustain life
Villi, Villus hairlike projections in the small intestine that
Vill/i meaning "tuft of hair"
Prehension the act of collecting food in your mouth
Mastication chewing, or breaking the food down with saliva
Deglutition moves the ingests into the pharynx and esophagus
Peristalsis the series of wavelike contractions of smooth muscle
-stalsis meaning "contraction"
Chyme semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes from the stomach
Ballottement diagnostic technique of hitting or tapping the wall of a fluid filled structure to bounce a solid structure against a wall
Barium contract material used for radiographic studies
Enema introduction of fluid into the rectum
Biopsy removal of tissue to examine
Blood test determination of blood perameters used to detect some diseases
Colonoscopy endoscope procedure of the inner surface of the colon
Esophagoscopy examination of the esophagus with an endoscope
Fecal examinations used to determine whether or not an animal has parasites
Gastroscopy endoscope exam of the inner surface of the stomach
Hemoccult text for hidden blood in the stool
-occult meaning "hidden"
Radiography general imaging of internal stuctures
Ultrasound imaging of internal body structures by recording sound waves
Achalasia inability to relax smooth muscle of the GI tract
Adontia absence of teeth
Aerophagia swallowing of air
Anal Sacculitis inflammation of the anal sacs
Inspissation process of rendering dry or thick by evaporation and is used to describe the anal sac fluid in animals with Anal Sacculitis
Anorexia lack or loss of appetite
Ascariasis parasitic infestation with roundworms of the genus Ascaris
Ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Atresia occlusion or absence of normal body opening or tubular organ
Bloat accumulation of gas in the digestive tract
Ruminal Tympany accumulation of gas in the rumen in ruminants
Borborygmus gas movement in the GI tract that produces a rumbling noise
Bruxism involuntary grinding of the teeth
Cachexia general ill health and malnutrition, used when describing cancer patients
Cirrhosis inflammation of the gallbladder
Cirrh/o meaning "tawny, yellow orange"
Colic severe abdominal pain (common in horses)
Colitis inflammation of the colon
Constipation condition of prolonged GI transit time, making the stool hard, dry, and difficult to pass
Coprophagia ingestion of fecal matter
Copr/o meaning "feces"
Coprophagic Therapy feeding a suspension of fecal pellets from a healthy animal to an ill animal. used in some animal species like guinea pigs and rabbits to treat GI disease
Cribbing vice of equine in which an object is grasped between the teeth, pressure is applied, and air is inhaled
Dehydration condition of excessive loss of body water or fluid
Dental Calculus (Tartar) abnormal mineralized deposit that forms on teeth
Dental Caries decay and decalcification of teeth, producing a hole
Diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal matter
Displaced Abomasum disease of ruminants in which the fourth stomach compartment becomes trapped under the rumen
Diverticulitis inflammation of a pouch of pouches occurring in the wall of a tubular organ
Dyschezia difficulty defecating
Dysentery number of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestine, abdominal pain, and diarrhea
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing or eating
Emaciation marked wasting or excessive leanness
Emesis (vomit) forcible expulsion of stomach contents through mouth
Per Os (PO to give something orally
Non Per Os (NPO) to give nothing orally
Enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
Enterocolitis inflammation fo teh small and large intestine
Epulis benign tumor arising from periodontal mucous membranes
Eructation belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
Esophageal Reflux return of stomach contents into esophagus (also called GERD)
Eviscerate remove or expose internal organs
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency metabolic disease in which the pancreas does not secrete adequate amounts of digestive enzymes
Fecalith / Coprolith stone like fecal mass
Flatulence excessive gas formation in the GI Tract
Gastric Dilatation condition usually seen in deep chested canines in which the stomach fills with air and expands
Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV) condition usually seen in deep chested canines in which the stomach fills with air, expands, then twists on itself
Gastritis inflammation of the stomach
Gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
Gingival Hyperplasia overgrowth of the gingiva characterized by firm, nonpainful swellings
Gingivitis inflammation of the gums
Glossitis inflammation of the tongue
Hematemesis vomiting blood
Hematochezia passage of a bloody stool
Hemoperitoneum blood in the peritoneum
Hepatitis inflammation of the liver
Hepatoma Tumor of the liver
Hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
Hiatal Hernia protrusion of a part of the stomach through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm
Hydrops Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of body cavity
Hyperglycemia elevated blood sugar levels
Hypoglycemia Lowered blood sugar levels
Ileitis inflammation fo the ileum
Ileus stoppage of intestinal peristalsis
Impaction obstruction of an area
Inappetence lack of desire to eat
Incontinence inability to control, (fecal incontinence = unable to control bowel movements)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease a group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders that are characterized microscopically by the inflammation fo inflammatory cells into the lining on the digestive tract
Inguinal Hernia protrusion of bowel through the inguinal canal (seen in groin area)
Intussusception telescoping of one part of the intestine into another adjacent part
Jaundice (Icterus) yellow dis colorization of the skin and mucous membranes
Lethargy condition of drowsiness or indifference
Malabsorption impaired uptake of nutrients from intestine
Malnutrition lack of proper food or nutrients
Total Parenteral Nutrition a liquid with all the nutrients an animal needs
Malocclusion abnormal contact between the teeth
Megacolon abnormally large colon
Megaesophagus abnormally large esophagus
Melena black, tarry stool containing digested blood
Nausea stomach upset or sensation or urge to vomit
Obstruction complete stopage or impairment to passage
Oronasal Fistula abnormal opening between the nasal and oral cavity
Palatoschisis congenital fissure of the roof of the mouth that may involve the upper lip, hard palate, soft palate
Perforating ulcer erosion though the entire thickness of a surface
Periapical Abscess inflammation of tissue and collection of pus surrounding the apical portion of a tooth root due to pulpal disease
Peridontitis inflammation of the tissue surrouding and supporting the teeth
Pica eating and licking abnormal substances or a depraved appetite
Plaque small, differentiated area on a body surface
Polydipsia (PD) excessive thirst or drinking
Polyp small growth on a mucous membrane
Polyphagia excessive eating or swallowing
Prolapse protrusion of viscera (rectal prolapse=protrusion of the rectum through the anus)
Quidding condition in which food is taken into the mouth and chewed, but falls out
Regurgitation return of swallowed food into the oral cavity, a passive event
Salivary Mucocele collection of saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland
Scours diarrhea in livestock
Shunt to bypass or divert
Stenosis narrowing of an opening
Stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
Tenesmus painful, ineffective defecation
Torsion axial twist, tist around the long axis of gut
Trichobezoar hairball
Ulcer erosion of tissue
Volvulus twisting in on itself
Abdominocentesis surgical puncture of the abdomen to remove fluid
Abomasopexy surgical fixation of the abomasum to the abdomen wall
Anastomosis surgical connection between two tubular or hollow structures
Anoplasty surgical repair of the anus
Antidiarrheal substance that prevents diarrhea
Bolus rounded mass of food or large pharmaceutical preparation or to give something rapidly
Cholecystectomy removal of the gallbladder
Colectomy removal of the colon
Colostomy adding a surgical hole between the colon and outsdie the body
Colotomy surgical incision into the colon
Crown restoration of teeth
Drench to give medication in liquid form by mouth and forcing animal to drink
Emetic producing vomit
Enterostomy surgical artificial opening between the small intesting and outside wall
Esophagoplasy surgical repair of the esophagus
Extraction removal
Fistula abnormal passage from an internal organ to the body surface
Float instrument used to file or rasp on an equine's premolar teeth
Gastrectomy surgical removal of the stomach, or just some of it
Gastroduodenostomy removal of all out part of the stomach and duodenum
Gastropexy surgical fixation of teh stomach to the abdominal wall
Gastostomy surgical production of an artificial opening
Gastrotomy surgical incision into the stomach
Gavage force feeding or irrigation through a tube passed into the stomach
Gingivectomy surgical removal of gum tissue
Hepatotomy surgical incision into the liver
Ileectomy surgical removal of the ileum
Ileostomy artificial opening between the ileum and abdominal wall
Lapraotomy incision into the abdomen
Nasogastric Intubation placement of a tube through the nose in to the stomach
Orogastric Intubation Passage of a tube from the mouth to the stomach
Palatoplasty surgical repair of a cleft plate
Transfaunation transferring microbes from one animal to another
Trocarization insertion of a pointed instrument into a body cavity or an organ
BE Barium Enema
BM bowel movement
C canine (tooth)
DA displaced abomasum
EPI exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
GDV gastric dilatation volvulus
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
I incisor (tooth)
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
LDA left displaced abomasum
M molar (tooth)
NG nasogastric
NPO nothing by mouth (no per os)
P premolar (tooth)
PD polydipsia
PO orally (per os)
RDA right displaced abomasum
TPN total parenteral nutrition
Created by: dmweaver