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Ch. 3 Meat & Bones

Veterinary Medical Terminology

Musculoskeletal System two systems that work together to support the body and allow movement
Ossification the formation of bones from fibrous tissue
Osteoblasts immature bone cells that produce bony tissue
Osteoclasts phagocytic cells that eat away bony tissue from the medullary cavity of long bone
Oste/o-, Oss/e-, Oss/i- bone
-blasts immature
-clasts break
Osteocytes mature Osteoblasts
Hematopoietic Red bone marrow located in cancellous bone (producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and clotting cells)
Hemat/o- blood
-poietic pertaining to formation
Medullary Cavity the inner space of bone (containing yellow bone marrow)
Cartilage another form of connective tissue that is more elastic than bone
Epi- above
Physis (Growth Plate or Epiphyseal Cartilage) Growth, cartilage segment of long bone that involved growth of the bone
Dia- between
Peri- surrounding
Oste/o- bone
-um structure
Endo- within, or inner
Meta- beyond
Cortical Bone (Compact Bone) hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone
Cancellous Bone (Spongy Bone) lighter, lass strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones
Cortex bark or shell (Latin)
Cancellous latticework (Latin)
Epiphysis wide end of long bone, covered in articular cartilage and composed of cancellous bone
Proximal Epiphysis located nearest the midline
Distal Epiphysis located farthest from the midline
Diaphysis shaft of long bone that is composed mainly of compact bone
Metaphysis wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis
Periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer covering of bone
Endosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the lining of the medullary cavity
Long Bones bones consisting of a shaft, 2 ends, and a marrow cavity (Femur)
Short Bones cube-shaped bones with no marrow cavity (carpal bones)
Flat Bones thin, flat bones (pelvis)
Pneumatic Bones sinus-containing bones (frontal bone)
Irregular Bones Unpaired bones (vertebrae)
Sesamoid Bones small bones embedded in a tendon (patella)
Articular Cartilage a specific cartilage that covers the joint surface of bone
Meniscus curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints such as the stifle that cushions forces
Chondr/o- cartilage
Joints (articulations) connections between 2 bones
Arthr/o- joint
Synarthroses joints that allow no movement
Amphiarthroses joints that allow slight movement
Diarthroses joints that allow free movement
Suture a jagged line where bones join and from a nonmovable joint
Fontanelle a soft spot remaining at the junction of sutures tat usually closes after birth
Symphysis (Cartilaginous Joint) a joint where 2 bones join and are held firmly together so that they function as one bone (Ex. mandibular symphysis, pubic symphysis)
Synovial Joint free moving joints, Ball and socket joint (Enarthrosis), arthrodial or condyloid joints, trochoid joints
Ball and Socket joints allowing a wide range of motion in many directions (hip or shoulder joint)
Arthrodial or Condyloid Joints joints with an oval projection that fit into a socket (Carpal joints where radius meets carpus)
Trochoid joint pulley shaped joints (atlas and axis in the neck)
Hinge joints allow motion in one direction (canine stifle or elbow joints)
Gliding joints move or glide over each other (radioulnar joint, articulating process between successive vertebrae)
Saddle joint the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb (in humans) allowing the thumb to flex, extend, abduct, adduct, and circumduct
Ligament (Ligament/o-) a band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to another bone
tendon (ten/o-, tend/o-, tendin/o-) band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone to help promote movement
Bursa (burs/o-) a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction (a bursa where a tendon passes over bone)
Synovial Membrane (Synovi/o-) secretes synovial fluid which acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth
Axial Skeleton the framework of the body (skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, sternum)
Appendicular Skeleton the framework of the body (extremities, shoulder, pelvic girdle) Appending meaning to hang.
Craniaum (Crani/o-) the portion of the skull that enclosed the brain
Frontal the roof of the cranial cavity
Parietal paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity
Occipital the caudal aspect of the cranial cavity where the foramen magnum, or opening for the spinal cord
Foramen opening in bone through which tissue passes
Magnum meaning large
Temporal paired bones that form the sides and base of the cranium
Sphenoid paired bones that form part of the base of the skull and parts of the floorand sides of the bony eye socket
Ethmoid forms the rostral part of the cranial cavity
Incisive forms the rostral part of the hard palate and lower edges of nares
Pterygoid forms the lateral wall of the nasopharynx
Sinuses air or fluid filled spaces in the cranium
Brachycephalic animals with short, wide heads, (Pug, Pekingese)
Dolichocephalic animals with long and narrow heads (greyhounds, collies)
Mesocephalic (mesaticephalic) animals with an average size heads (Labrador Retrievers)
Zygomatic forms the orbit and cheekbone, projections from the temporal and zygomatic bone form the zygomatica arch
Maxilla forms the upper jaw
Mandible forms the lower jaw
Palatine forms parts of the hard palate
Lacrimal forms the medial part of the orbit
incisive forms the rostral part of the hard plate
Nasal forms the bridge of the nose
Vomer forms the base of the nasal septum
Nasal septum the cartilaginous structure that divides the two nasal cavities
Hyoid bone suspended between the mandible and the laryngopharynx
Vertebral column (Spinal column, backbone) supports the head and body and protects the spinal cord
Vertebra (spondyl/o-, vertebr/o-) individual bones that make up the spinal column
Vertebral body the portion of the vertebra ventral to the spinal cord
Vertebral arch the dorsal part that surrounds the spinal cord
Lamina the left or right dorsal half of the arch of vertebra
vertebral process meaning projection
Spinous Process a single projection from the dorsal part of the vertebral arch
Transverse Processes project laterally from the left and right sides of the vertebral arch
Articular Processes paired cranial and caudal projections located on the dorsum of the vertebral arch
Foramen meaning opening
Vertebral foramen the opening in the middle of the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes
Intervertebral Discs (disc/o-) cartilage discs that cushion, and separates each vertebra
Atlas C1 the first vertebra
Axis C2 the second vertebra
Ribs (costals, cost/o-) paired bones that attach to the thoracic vertebrae
Sternum (breastbone) forms the midline ventral portion of the rib cage divided into 3 parts (manubrium, body, xiphoid process)
Manubrium cranial portion of the sternum
Body (of the sternum) the middle portion of the sternum
Xiphoid Process the caudal portion of the sternum
Thoracic Cavity (rib cage) the ribs, sternum, thoracic vertebrae
Scapula (Shoulder blade) large triangular on the side of the thorax
Clavicle (Collar bone) a slender bone that connects the sternum to the scapula
Vestigial clavicle rudimentary clavicle (some species have no clavicle at all)
Humerus (Brachium) long bone of the proximal front limb
Antebrachium the forearm, distal front limb (radius, ulna)
Ante- before
Radius the cranial bone of the front limb
Ulna the caudal bone of the front limb
Olecranon a proximal projection on the ulna that forms the point of the elbow
Carpal bones irregularly shaped bones in the area known as the wrist on humans
Metacarpals bones that are found distal to the carpus
Splint bones (Canon Bone) found in horses, are attached by an interosseous ligament to the large metacarpal,
Phalanges (Phalanx) bones of the digit, numbered from proximal to distal
Digits are the bones analogous to the human finger
Dewclaws Digit 1 on dogs
Ungulates animals with hooves
Fetlock Joint in livestock, the joint between metacarpal (metatarsal) III and the proximal phalanx
Pastern Joint the joint between P1 and P2
Coffin joint the joint between P2 and P3
Claw (onych/o-) P3 in non hooved animals
Onychectomy a declaw procedure for cats (not advised, this is painful and unnecessary)
Sesamoid bones small nodular bones embedded in a tendon or joint capsule
Navicular bone in horses, located insid ehooves of the palmar of plantar surface of P3
Pelvis (hip) consists of 3 bones (ilium, ischium, pubis)
Ilium the largest pair of bones in the pelvis, blade shaped, articulates with the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint
Ischium caudal pair of bones in the pelvis
Pubis the ventral pair of bones that are fused on the midline by a cartilaginous joint called Pubic Symphysis
Acetabulum the large socket of the pelvic bone that forms where the bones meet
Femur (thigh bone) the proximal long bone on the rear leg
Trochanters large flat broad projections on a bone
Condyles rounded projection on a bone
Patella large sesamoid bone in the rear limb (like the kneecap, only use kneecap for the front limbs)
Stifle Joint the joint that houses the patella
Popliteal sesamoid bone located on the caudal surface of the stifle
Tibia the larger and more weight bearing distal bone in the rear legs
Fibula a longer slender distal bone of the rear legs
Crus area of the rear limb between the stifle and the hock
Tarsus area of irregularly shaped bones in what would be the ankle in a human small animals
Hock Tarsus or ankle area in a larger animal
Talus one of the tarsal bones
Calcaneus long lateral bone located in the proximal row of the tarsal bones
Aperture opening
Canal tunnel
Condyle rounded projection (articulates with another bone)
Crest high projection of border projection
Crista ridge
Dens Toothlike structures
Eminence surface projection
Facet smooth area
Fissure Deep Cleft
Foramen Hole
Fossa trench of hollow depressed area
Fovea small pit
Head Major Protrusion
Lamina Thin, flat plate
Line low projection or ridge
Malleolus rounded projection (distal end of tibia and fibula)
Meatus Passage or opening
Process projection
Protuberance projecting part
Ramus Branch or smaller structure given off by a larger structure
Sinus Space or cavity
Spine Sharp projection
Sulcus groove
Suture seam
Trochanter broad flat projection (on femur)
Trochlea pulley shaped structure in which other structures pass or articulate
Tubercle small rounded surface projection
Tuberosity projecting part
Arthrocentesis surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluid for analysis
Arthrography injection of a joint with contrast material for radiographic examination
Arthroscopy visual examination of the joint using a fiberoptic scope
Densitometer device that measures bone density using light and x-rays
Goniometer (goni/o-) instrument that measures angles or range of motion in a joint
Radiology study of internal body structures after exposure to ionizing radiation, used to detect fractures and diseases of bones
Ankylosis (ankyl/o-) loss of joint mobility caused by disease, injury, ro surgery
Arthralgia joint pain
Arthritis inflammatory condition of joints
Arthrodynia joint pain
Arthropathy joint disease
Bursitis inflammation of the bursa
Chondromalacia abnormal cartilage softening
Chondropathy Cartilage disease
Discospondylitis inflammation of the intervertebral disc and vertebrae
Epiphysitis Inflammation of the growth plate
Exostosis benign growth on the bone surface
Gouty Arthritis joint inflammation associated with the formation of uric acid crystals in the joint
Hip Dysplasia abnormal development of the pelvic joint causing the head of the femur and the acetabulum not to be aligned properly
Intervertebral Disc Disease (herniated disc, ruptured disc, IVDD) rupture of protrusion of the cushioning disc found between the vertebrae that results in pressure on the spinal cord nerve roots
Kyphosis dorsal curvature of the spine, hunchback
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease idiopathic necrosis of the femoral head and neck of small breed dogs, also called avascular necrosis of the femoral head and neck
Lordosis position in which the vertebral column is abnormally curved ventrally, seen in cats in heat, commonly called swayback
Luxation Dislocation of displacement of a bone from it's joint
Myeloma tumor composed of cells derived from hematopoietic tissues of bone marrow
Ostealgia bone pain
Osteitis inflammation of bone
Osteoarthritis degenerative joint disease commonly associated with aging or wear and tear on the joints, also called degenerative joint disease, or DJD
Osteochondrosis degeneration or necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or recalcification
Osteochondrosis Dissecans degeneration or necrosis of bone and cartilage followed by regeneration or recalcification with dissecting flap or articular cartilage and some inflammatory joint changes
Osteophytes (Joint mice) detached pieces of articular cartilage
Osteomalacia abnormal softening of bone
Osteomyelitis inflammation of bone and bone marrow
Osteonecrosis death fo bone tissue
Osteoporosis abnormal condition of marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity
Osteosclerosis abnormal hardening of bone
Periostitis inflammation of the fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
Rheumatoid Arthritis Autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue and joints
Sequestrum piece of dead bone that is partially or fully detached from the adjacent healthy bone
Spondylitis inflammation of the vertebrae
Spondylosis any degenerative disorder of the vertebrae
Spondylosis Deformans chronic degeneration of the articular processes and the development of bony outgrowths around the ventral edge of the vertebrae
Spur bony projection growing out of a bone
Subluxation partial dislocation or displacement of a bone from its joint
Synovitis Inflammatin of the synovial membrane of joints
Avulsion Fracture broken bone in which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is detached by a forceful pull
Callus bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually become bone
Closed Fracture (simple fracture) broken bone in which there is no open wound in the skin
Comminuted Fracture broken bone that is splintered or crushed into multiple pieces
Compression Fracture broken bone produced when the bones are pressed together
Crepitation (Crepitus) cracking sensation that is felt and heard when broken bones move together
Displaced Fracture bone fracture parts are out of line
Fracture broken bone
Greenstick Fracture (Incomplete fracture) bone that is broken only on one side and the other side si bent
Immobilization act of holding, suturing, or fastening a bone in a fixed position, usually with a bandage or cast
Manipulation (reduction) Attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture of dislocation,
Oblique Fracture broken bone that has an angular break diagonal to the long axis
Open Fracture (Compound Fracture) broken bone in which there id an open wound in the skin
Pathologic Fracture broken bone in an area of bone weakened by disease
Physeal Fracture bone that is broken at the epiphyseal line or growth plate, Salter-Harris I-V fractures
Spiral Fracture broken bone in which the bone is twisted apart or spiraled apart
Stress Fracture broken bone caused by repetitive, local stress on a bone
Transverse Fracture broken bone that is broken at right angles to it's axis or straight across the bone
Amputation removal of some, or all of a body part
Arthrodesis fusion of a joint or the spinal vertebrae by surgical means
-desis to bind or surgical fixation of a bone or joint
Chemonucleolysis process of dissolving part of the center of an intervertebral disc by injecting a foreign substance
Craniotomy surgical incision or opening in the skull
External Fixation Alignment of bone maintained by immobilizing the bone near the fracture through the use of casts, ,splints, or external fixators (rods, or pins)
Internal Fixation alignment of bone maintained by immobilizing the bone directly at the fracture site through the use of wires, screws, pins, or paltes
Laminectomy surgical removal of the dorsal arch of a vertebra
Ostectomy surgical removal of bone
Osteocentesis surgical puncture of a bone
Osteodensis Fusion of bones
Osteopexy surgical fixation of a bone to the body wall
Osteoplasty surgical repair of a bone
Osteostomy surgical creation of a permanent new opening in bone
Osteotomy Surgical incision or sectioning of bone
Trephination process of cutting a hole into a bone using trephine
Trephine circular sawlike instrument used to remove bone or tissue
Adjustment (manipulation) the application of a controlled rapid thrust of precise direction and depth delivered to a specific contact point
Extension (chiropractic) ventral arching or straightening of the spine
Flexion (chiropractic) Dorsal arching for the spine
Lateral Flexion (chiropractic) bowing or bending to each side (left or right)
Rotation (chiropractic) twisting to the left or right
Fixation when a joint becomes immobilized in a fixed position that may occur at rest or during a normal movement
Malarticulations the connections between bones that do not line up correctly
Misalignment (subluxation) vertebral misalignment, interfering with nerve signals from the brain
Motion segment basic functional unit of the spine
Range of motion amount of movement that occurs at a particular joint (ROM)
Spinal Manipulation used to restore normal motion and alignment
Ambulation walking, running, moving from one place to another
My/o-, Myos/o- muscle
Fibr/o-, Fibros/o- fibrous tissue
Skeletal Muscle striated, voluntary movement, attaches bones to the body and makes motion possible
Smooth Muscle Nonstriated, Unstriated, involuntary, visceral, produces slow contractions to allow unconscious function of internal organs
Cardiac Muscle Striated, involuntary, contraction of the heart muscle
Fascia (Fasci/o-, Fasc/i-) sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers supports and separates muscles
Tendon (tend/o-, tendin/o-) narrow band of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
Linea Alba a fibrous band of connective tissue on the ventral abdominal wall that is the median attachment of the abdominal muscles
Aponeurosis (aponeur/o-) a fibrous sheet that provides attachment to muscular fibers and is a means of origin or insertion of a flat muscle
Kinesi/o-, -kinesis movement
Kinesiology study of movement
Antagonistic things that work opposite each other (with muscles they are a pair that produce movement in opposite directions)
Anti- against
Agon- struggle
Synergists things that work together (with muscles they contract at the same time to help move or support)
Contraction tightening of a muscle
Relaxation lessening tension, or release, of a muscle
Neuromuscular Junction point at which nerve endings come in contact with the muscle cells
Tonus muscle tone
Muscle Origin the place where the muscle begins, or originates, a more fixed attachment
Muscle Insertion the place there the muscle ends, or inserts and a more moveable part
Abductor muscle that moves away from the midline
Adducter Muscle that moves a part toward the midline
Flexor muscle that bends a limb at it's joint or decreases the joint angle
Extensor muscle that straightens a limb, or lessens the angle of the joint
Levator Muscle that raises or elevates
Depressor Muscle that lowers or depresses
Rotator Muscle that turns a body part on it's axis
Supinator Muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface upwards
Pronator Muscle that rotates the palmar or plantar surface downwards
Pectoral Muscles located on the chest Pector = chest
Epaxial Muscles located above the pelvic axis epi-above, axis- line which rotation occurs,
Intercostal Muscles located between the ribs
Infraspinatus Muscles located beneath the spine of the scapula
Supraspinatus Muscles located above the spine of the scapula
Externus outer
Internus Inner
Orbicularis muscles surrounding a structure
Rectus Straight direction of muscle fiber
Oblique slanted outward, direction of muscle fiber
Transverse crosswise, direction of muscle fiber
Sphincter tight band, direction of muscle fiber
Biceps muscles with 2 divisions
Triceps muscles with 3 divistion
Quadriceps muscles with 4 divisions
Minimus small size of muscle
Manimus (Vastus) large size of muscle
Latissimus broad size of muscle
Longissimus (gracilis) narrow size of muscle
Major describes larger parts of muscle
Minor describes smaller parts of muscle
Deltoid muscle looks like triangle (greek delta)
Quadratus muscles that are square or 4 sided
Rhomboideus muscles that are diamond shaped
Scalenus muscles that are unequally 3 sided
Serratus muscles that are saw toothed
Teres muscles that ae cylindrical
Electromyography process of recording the electrical activity fo the muscle cells
Electromyogram the record of the strength of muscle contraction caused by electrical stimulation
Adhesion band of fibers that hold structures together in an abnormal fashion
Ataxia lack of voluntary control of muscle movement
Atonic lacking muscle tone
Atrophy decrease size or complete wasting of an organ, tissue, or cell
Dystrophy defective growth
Fascitis inflammation on the sheet fo fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
Fibroma tumor composed of fully developed connective tissue (fibroid)
Hernia Protrusion of a body part through tissues that normally contain it.
Laxity looseness
Leiomyositis inflammation of smooth muscle
Leomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle
Myasthenia muscle weaknes (-asthenia = weakness)
Myoclonus muscle spasm (clon/o- = violent action, spasm)
Myoma benign tumor of muscle
Myopathy abnormal condition or disease of muscle
Myositis inflammation of voluntary muscles
Myotonia Delayed relaxation of muscle afer contraction
rhabdomyoma benign tumor of striated muscle
tendinitis inflammation of the tendon (connecting muscle to bone)
Tetany muscle spasms or twitching
Myectomy surgical removal of muscle
Myoplasty Surgical repair of muscle
Myotomy surgical incision into muscle
Tenectomy surgical removal of a part of tendon
Tenotomy surgical division of a tendon
DJD degenerative joint disease
EMG electromyography
Fx fracture
IVDD intervertebral disc disease
P1 phalanx 1
P2 phalanx 2
P3 phalanx 3
RA rheumatoid arthritis
ROM range of motion
TPO triple pelvic osteotomy
Created by: dmweaver



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