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Ch. 2 Where/Why/What

Veterinary Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Midsagittal Plane (Median/Midline) the plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves
Sagittal Plane the plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
Dorsal Plane (Frontal, Coronal) the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts
Transverse Plane (Horizontal, Cross-sectional) the palne that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts
Ventral refers to the belly or underside of a body or body part
Dorsal refers to the back
Cranial towards the head
Caudal towards the tail
Anterior front of the body (used for organs or body parts)
Posterior rear of the body (used for organs of body parts)
Rostral towards the nose end of the head
Medial towards the midline
Lateral away from the midline
Superior uppermost, above, or towards the head (used more in bipeds)
Inferior means lowermost, below, or toward the tail (used more in bipeds)
Proximal nearest the midline or nearest to the beginning of a structure
Distal farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a stucture
Superficial near the surface
Deep away from the surface
Palmar the caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including the carpus (from the antebrachial joint distally)
Plantar the caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus (from the tibiotarsal joint distally)
-ology study of
Anatomy the study of body stucture
Physiology the study of body functions
Physi/o- nature
Pathology the study of the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions
Path/o- disease
Pathophysiology the study of changes in function caused by disease
Etiology the study of disease causes
Eti/o- cause of
-logist a specialist
Cardiologist a heart specialist
dermat/o- skin
Dermatologist a skin specialist
Dental Arcade term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the the mouth
Arcade a series of arches
Lingual Surface the aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue
Maxilla upper jaw
Mandible lower jaw
Palatal Surface the tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue
Buccal Surface (Vestibular Surface) the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek
Occusal Surface the aspects of the teeth that meet when the animal chews
Labial Surface the tooth surface facing the lips
Contact Surfaces the aspects of the tooth that touch other teeth
Mesial surface closest to the midline
Distal surface furthest from the midline
Cavity hole or hollow space in the body that contains and protects internal organs
Cranial Cavity hollow space that contains the brain in the skull
Spinal Cavity hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
Thoracic Cavity (Chest Cavity) hollow space that contains the heart and lungs within the ribs between the neck and diaphragm
Abdominal Cavity hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion located between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
Peritoneal Cavity hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum
Pelvic Cavity hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems
Abdomen the portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis
Thorax the chest region located between the neck and the diaphragm
Groin (Inguinal Area) the caudal region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh
Membranes thin layers of tissue that covers a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or an organ
Peritoneum the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some organs in the area
Parietal Peritoneum outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
Visceral Peritoneum inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
Umbilicus (Navel) the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus
Mesentery the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity
Retroperitoneal superficial to the peritoneum
Recumbent the only term you can use to mean "laying down"
Dorsal Recumbency lying on the back
Ventral Recumbency (Sternal Recumbency) Lying on the belly, or sternum
Left Lateral Recumbency lying on the left side
Right Lateral Recumbency Lying on the right side
Prone lying in ventral or sternal recumbency
Supine lying in dorsal recumbency
Adduction movement towards the midline
Abduction movement away from the midline
Flexion closure of a joint, reduction in angle between 2 bones
Extension straightening of a joint, increase in angle between 2 bones
Hyperflexion a joint that is flexed too far
Hyperextension a joint that is extended too far
Supination act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward
Pronation the act of rotating limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned downward
Rotation term of movement that means circular movement around an axis
Cyt/o- cell
Cytology study of cells
Protoplasm the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus colectively
Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) the structure lining the cell that protects the cell's contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
Cytoplasm the gelatinous material in the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
Nucleus the structure in a cell that contains Nucleoplasm, Chromosomes, and surrounding membrane
Nucleoplasm material in the nucleus
Chromosomes structures in the nucleus composed of DNA that transmits genetic information
Genetic Disorder any inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes
Congenital something that is present at birth
Anomaly deviation from what is regarded as normal (used instead of defect)
Tissue a group of specialized cells that is similar in structure and function
Histology the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue
Hist/o- tissue
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium) covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells in a variety of arrangements
Epi- above
Endothelium cellular covering that forms the lining of the internal organs, including blood vessels (part of the Epithelium)
Mesothelium the cellular covering that forms the lining of serious membranes such as the peritoneum (part of the Epithelium)
Meso- Middle
Connective Tissue adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together
Adipose Tissue fat, connective tissue
Adip/o- fat
Muscle Tissue tissue that contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax
Nervous Tissue contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses
-plasia describes formation, development, and growth in the number of cells in an organ or tissue
-trophy formation, development, and growth in the size of an organ or a tissue or individual cell
Anaplasia a change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other.
Aplasia lack of development of an organ or a tissue or a cell
Dysplasia an abnormal growth or development of an organ or a tissue or a cell
Hyperplasia an abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue
Hypoplasia incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or a tissue or cell
Neoplasia any abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive (tumor)
Tumor a benign (not reoccuring) or malignant (tending to spread, life threatening) mass of abnormal tissue
-oma tumor or neoplasm
Atrophy decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell
Dystropy defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell
Hypertrophy increase in the size of an organ to tissue of cell
Glands groups of specialized cells that secrete material used elsewhere in the body
Aden/o- gland
Exocrine Glands groups of cells that secrete their chemical substances into ducts that lead out of the body or another organ
Endocrine Glands a group of cells that secrete their chemical substances directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body
Organ a part of the body that performs a special function or functions
Bicornuate Uterus Uterus with 2 horns
Unilateral Pertaining to 1 side
Bilateral Pertaining to 2 sides
Oste/o-, Oss/e-, Oss/i- Bones
Arthr/o- Joints
Chondr/o- Cartilage
My/o- Muscles
Fasc/i-, Fasci/o- Fascia
Ten/o-, Tend/o-, Tendin/o- Tendons
Cardi/o- Heart
Arteri/o- Arteries
Ven/o-, phleb/o- Veins
Hem/o-, Hemat/o- Blood
Lymph/o- Lymph vessels, fluid, nodes
Tonsill/o- Tonsils
Splen/o- Spleen
Thym/o- Thymus
Nas/o-, Rhin/o- Nose or nares
Pharyng/o- Pharynx
Trache/o- Trachea
Laryng/o- Larynx
Pneum/o-, Pneumon/o-, Pulm/o-, Pulmon/o- Lungs
Or/o-, Stomat/o Mouth
Esophag/o- Esophagus
Gastr/o- Stomach
Enter/o- Small intestine
Col/o-, Colon/o- Large intestine
Hepat/o- Liver
Pancreat/o Pancreas
Ren/o-, Nephr/o- Kidneys
Ureter/o- Ureters
Cyst/o- Urinary bladder
Urethr/o- Urethra
Neur/o-, Neur/i- Nerves
Encephal/o- Brain
Ophthalm/o-, Ocul/o-, Opt/o-, Opt/i- Eyes
Optic/o- Sight
Ot/o-, Audit/o-, Aud/i- Ears
Aur/i-, Aur/o- External Ear
Dermat/o-, Derm/o-, Cutane/o- Skin
Adren/o- Adrenals
Gonad/o- Gonads
Pineal/o- Pineal
Pituit/o- Pituitary
Thyroid/o-, Thyr/o- Thyroid
Orch/o-, Orch/i-, Orchid/o-, Testicul/o- Testes
Ovari/o-, Oophor/o- Ovaries
Hyster/o-, Metr/o-, Metr/i-, Metri/o-, Uter/o- Uterus
Uni- One
Mono- One
Duo-, Bi- Two
Dyo- Two
Tri- Three
Quadri-, Quadro Four
Tetr-, Tetra Four
Quinqu-, Quint- Five
Pent-, Penta Five
Sex- Six
Hex-, Hexa- Six
Sept-, Septi- Seven
Hept-, Hepta- Seven
Octo- Eight
Oct-, Octa-, Octo- Eight
Novem-, Nonus- Nine
Ennea- Nine
Deca-, Decem- Ten
Dek-, Deka- Ten
Created by: dmweaver