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Islam

(willis) Islam

TermDefinition
Bedouins Arab nomads who were organized into tribes and groups called clans.
Allah Arabic for God.
Muhammad A merchant who became convinced that he was the last of the prophets.
Islam “submission to the will of Allah”
Muslim “one who has submitted.”
Hijrah Muhammad's migration to the town of Yathrib.
Umma The Muslim religious community.
Mosque An Islamic house of worship.
Hajj The pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Five Pillars of Islam Faith, Prayer,Alms, Fasting, & Pilgrimage.
Qur’an The holy book of the Muslims.
Sunna Muhammad’s example
Shari’a This system of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims.
caliph “successor”
caliphate The rule of the “rightly guided” caliphs.
Jihad Word that means “striving” and can refer to the inner struggle against evil. It is also used in the Qur’an to mean an armed struggle against unbelievers.
Abu-Bakr Muhammad's successor.
Poll Tax Muslims allowed conquered peoples to follow their own religion as long as they paid this tax.
Umayyads The ruling family that moved the Muslim capital to Damascus.
Shi’ites They believed the caliph needed to be a descendant of Muhammad.
Shi’a The “party” of Ali.
Sunni Followers of Muhammad’s example.
Sufi They pursued a life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path.
Abbasids The most powerful of the rebel groups to overthrow the Umayyads.
al-Andalus Southern Spain, where the remaining Umayyads set up their kingdom.
Fatimid Caliphate State formed by Shi’a Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima.
sakk “check.”
Baghdad The Abbasid capital city
House of Wisdom A combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad.
The Thousand and One Nights A collection of fairy tales, parables, and legends.
Calligraphy The art of beautiful handwriting
Al-Razi He wrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book that drew on knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic, and Indian sources as well as on his own experience.
Al-Khwarizmi He wrote a textbook in the AD 800s explaining “the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quantity.” He called this technique al-jabr—today called algebra.
Ibn Rushd Philosopher who argued that Greek philosophy and Islam both had the same goal: to find the truth.
Created by: chadmw