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Sense Organs ANS 205

Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for the sensory system? Afferent
What is the sensory system? Means by which the nervous system receives information about the environment and movement
What is exteroception? external environment
What is interoception? internal environment
What is proprioception? position and movement
What is a conscious perception of sensory stimuli? sensation
What does the ending -ception mean? perceiving
What is a somatosensation? General senses such as pain, touch, temperature, and proprioception on body surfaces and musculoskeletal elements
What is the special sense organ for taste? gustation
What is the special sense organ for smell? olfaction
What is the special sense organ for sight? vision
What is the special sense organ for hearing? audition
What is the special sense organ for equilibrium? vestibular sensation
What does soma- mean? body of the cell
Name three animal-specific sense organs. Geomagnetism, detection of electric fields, and modified audition
What is geomagnetism? migratory bird and insects
Which species of animals use detection of electric fields? fish
Cetaceans and bats use what to navigate? modified audition and sonar
What do some animals ride in the ocean? East Australian Current
What are sensory receptors? specialized cells/nerve endings that detect internal or external environment
What is transduction? mechanism by which the nervous system changes environmental energy to electrical activity of neurons (changed into action potential)
What are the five types of sensory recpetors? Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors, and chemoreceptors
What are mechanoreceptors? stretch, proprioception (skeletal muscles)
What are thermoreceptors? hot, cold, infrared
What are nociceptors? dull vs. sharp pain
What are photorecptors? light (rods and cones)
What are chemoreceptors? taste, smell, CO2, pH
What are unencapsulate receptors? sensory dendrites that lack a connective tissue wrapping
What is an exmaple of unencapsulated receptors? free nerve endings and hair receptors
What are encapsulated receptors? dendrites with a glial cell wrap or connective tissue covering
What is an example of encapsulated receptors? Meissners corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles in skin
What are blood cells called? corpuscles
What is perception created through input of a variety of specialized receptors? proprioception
Where are taste cells found? on tongue and throat
Where are taste buds found? papillae
What are the five tastes? Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami (MSG)
What cranial nerves are associated with taste receptors? VII, IX, and X
What type is the olfactory epithelium? pseudostratified
How does the smell make it to the brain? nerve dendrites have cilia that bind the odors to them, then the odor is relayed to the nerve axon which synapses dendritesof the olfactory buld to the brain
What are the three parts of the ear? external, middle, internal
What are the two functions of the ear? hearing and balance
What is in charge of hearing? cochlea
What maintains balance and equilibrium? semi-circular canals and vestibularapparatus
What are the parts of the external ear? pinna/auricle, auricular cartilage
What is important about the shape of the ear? It captures sound localization
What forms most of the ear canal? annular cartilage
Where does the tubular extension of pinna connect? external acoustic canal and tympanic membrane
What is the external acoustic canal made of? modified skin with sebaceous and ceruminous glands
What does the prefix au- mean? hearing
What kind of space is the middle ear? air-filled
What is the tympanic cavity lined with?? mucous membrane in temporal lobe
How is the middle ear sealed off from the external ear? by the tympanic membrane
What are the three middle ear ossicles? malleus, incus, stapes
What are the shapes of malleus, incus, and stapes? hammer, anvil, stirrup
What are the two muscles in the middle ear? tensor tympani and stapedius
What causes you to not be able to hear after a loud rock concert? The two muscles of the inner ear
Where is the internal ear located? within the temporal lobe as a multichambered membranous sac
What is the purpose of the internal ear? detects sound and acceleration of head
How many parts are in the internal ear, what are their names and shape? Three: utriculus and sacculus (2 large pieces), semicircular ducts (3 loops), and cochlear duct (spiral)
What are the three parts of the cochlea? scala vestibuli, cochlear duct, and scala tympani
How do the sound waves travel at the beginning of the ear? down pinna to tympanic membrane
What transfers vibrations to vestibular window? ossicles
The Organ of Corti is also called what? hair cells
What part of the eye allows light to pass easily? cornea
What parts is the cornea missing to allow light? vascular elements and pigment
What is required so light cannot reflect in the eye? dehydration
What types of animals have larger corneas to increase light transmission? nocturnal
How much of their cornea do dogs and cats use? dogs 17% and cats 30%
What is the purpose of the lens? focuses light onto the retina
What is is called when the muscles in ciliary body change the shape of the lens? accomodation
Which would have a larger lens? Distant light or close light? close
What is the purpose of the iris? controls how much light gets into the eye by regulating pupil size
What animals have a horizontal iris? domestic herbivores and pigs
What animals have a vertical and elliptical iris? cat
What is the shape of a dog's iris? circular
What are the two sets of smooth muscles in the iris and their shape? Circular-parasympathetic and radial-sympathetic
What are the masses of color in the iris called? corpora nigra
Where is the aqueous humor formed? posterior chamber behind iris
What is the function of the aqueous humor? provides nutrition to cornea and lens, remove waste products, and maintains pressure
Where is the vitreous humor? behind lens
What is the condition when the humors need to be drained if they are blocked? glaucoma (increased pressure)
What are the two photoreceptors in the retina? rods and cones
What colors do you see with rods? black and white
Where is the blind spot in the eye? at the optic disc
What happens to your eyes in darkness? increased concentration of rhodopsin and diameter of pupil
What is the tapetum in the eye? A reflective layer of inner choroid that allows light to reflect
What is the difference between monocular vision and binocular vision? monocular is with one eye whereas binocular is with two eyes
Created by: chargearoo