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Immunoassays

Food Analysis Final Exam

What are three advantages of immunoassays? Specific, sensitive, simple
Name three applications of immunoassays. Screening tests for pesticides, drug residues, foodborne pathogens, bacterial toxins, allergens, GMOS, etc.
Define antigen. Any molecule which induces the formation of antibodies and can bind antibodies.
Define antibody. Proteins produced by B cells in response to an antigen.
Immunoglobulin is an example of an _____. antibody
Define Hapten. Immunogen small molecules which must be linked to a carrier protein in order to induce antibodies - b/c molecules alone cannot induce antibodies.
Define conjugate antigen. A carrier protein-linked hapten molecule.
___ antibody has the highest concentration in blood and is the most important class used in immunoassays. IgG
T or F: Binding strength between antibody and antigen is important for sensitivity of immunoassays. True
Define epitope. The specific region of antigen in which the antibody is bound.
Name the four interactions associated with antigen-antibody binding. Ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic, van der waals.
What is the difference between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies? Polyclonal antibodies consist of many antibodies which can bind to many different epitopes on an antigen, whereas a monoclonal antibody can only bind one epitope.
How is an antigen-antibody reaction measured? Separate free antigen from bound antigen, and quantify bound antigen at low concentrations.
Name the two most commonly used enzymes for immunoassays. horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase
Describe how ELISA works. Enzymes link to a specific antigen or antibodies and absorb light, showing color when compound of interest is detected.
Describe a non-competitive immunoassay. The amount of antibody-antigen complex is measured by the amount of enzyme linked to antigen/antibodies.
Describe a competitive immunoassay. Involves a competition between the sample antigen and an added antigen binding to an antibody.
The colored product intensity is directly related to amount of target molecule in _____ immunoassays. non-competitive
The colored product intensity is inversely realted to amount of target molecule in _____ immunoassays. competitive
What are two advantages to indirect ELISA over direct ELISA? Increased sensitivity, differentiate antibody classes, use less immunoreagent.
Sandwich ELISA is considered a _____ immunoassay. non-comepetitve
_____ ELISA can be used to detect large molecules such as proteins. Sandwich
_____ immunoassays can be used to detect both small and large molecules. Competitive
T or F: In a competitive immunoassay, the more absorbant means less antigen is present. True
What is the difference between bound hapten format and bound antibody format? Enzyme linked antibody versus hapten binds the substrate respectively.
What two techniques are combined in a Western blot? SDS-PAGE, immunoassay
What does a Western blot do? Identifies target proteins and confirms their identity by molecular mass.
Lateral flow strips are used to test for ____. GMOs
Created by: goberoi