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Lesson 7 sec1 Vacab

veterinary anatomy and physiology

Anatomy the science of dealing with the form and structure of living organisms
physiology the science that treats the functions of the living organism and its parts
cell the smallest unit of living structure capable of independent existence.
molecules group of atoms joined by chemical bonds
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA contains all the special coded information the cell needs to function
ribonucleic acid RNA contains information to help the cell make the specific types of protein it needs
Plasma Membrane the thin skin that surrounds the cell, composed of a double layer of phospholipid molecules, and helps maintain the internal environment of the cell.
nucleus a membrane-bound area within the cell that contains and protects the cell's DNA
Ribosomes a small collection of RNA and proteins, used to build the proteins the cell needs.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) a membrane-bound set of branching sacs that contains enzymes, and is used to build the lipid molecules the cell needs
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) similar in structure to the smooth ER except that the membrane has ribosomes associated with it, and is used to build proteins in this area.
Golgi apparatus the membrane-bound area where the proteins of the cell are prepared to be exported from the cell
Cytoskeleton the general term for several structures, such as centrioles, that give support to the cell and may help to move items around inside of the cell
mitochondria consists of an outer membrane and an inner membrane with many folds. It is used to produce the energy molecules the cell needs to perform its functions.
vacuoles a space or cavity in the protoplasm of a cell
lipid fat
epithelial tissue tissues that cover surfaces in the body, such as organs and body cavities
connective tissues there are several types of connective tissues, such as blood bone, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage
muscle tissue there are three types of muscle tissue that differ in function: 1) the heart 2) the muscles that surround certain organs, and 3) the muscles that are attached to bones.
nervous tissue makes up the brain and spinal cord, which contain specialized cells called neurons
musculoskeletal system functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs and is made up of all the body parts working together.
skeletal system supports and protects the body's tissues, made up of a variety of bones.
long bones involved in voluntary movement, contain a cavity, the bone marrow. main part is the shaft (diaphysis).
bone marrow where blood cells are produced
diaphysis main part of the long bone
epiphysis ends of the long bones
small bones include those that make up the paw such as carpal and tarsal bones
vertebrae irregularly shaped bones
flat bones make up skull and pelvis
sesamoid bones includes the kneecap, a small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule
patella kneecap
pneumatic bones bones that contain air sacs, very lightweight. Bird skeletons are made mainly of pneumatic bone.
Axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebrae that make up the spinal column, the ribs, and the sternum
sternum breastbone
Spinal column vertebrae location names cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
visceral skeleton when present, this skeletal set of bones creates the inside parts of organs: os cordi, os penis, and os rostri are examples.
os cordis located in the hearts of cattle and sheep
os penis found in the penises of dogs, beaver, raccoons, and walruses
os rostri present in the noses of swine
appendicular skeleton divided into the bones of the forelimb and hindlimb
thoracic limb forelimb, which includes the scapule, humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpal bones, and phalanges.
pelvic limb hindlimb, includes pelvis (ilium, ischium, and pubis), femur, tibia, fibula, tarsus, metacarpal bones, and phalanges.
joint where bones are connected
fibrous joints no movement occurs when bones are held together by fibrous joints, such as the connections in the skull.
cartilaginous joints only allows a rocking movement, such as that found in the spine
synovial joints allows for 6 types of movement (flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction) and are found in the limbs and other areas where more movement is needed.
Muscles capable of contraction, attached to many of the bones, sometimes surround certain body organs and aid in the performance of the function of these organs
voluntary muscles ones in which a person chooses to control
involuntary muscles ones in which the nervous system controls.
smooth muscle involuntary muscles that surround the organs in the body such as the intestines and bladder.
skeletal muscle voluntary muscles that attach to bones and allow the skeleton to move
cardiac muscle with specialized areas this muscle helps control the contraction of the heart.
integument all external structures of the body such as skin, hair, claws, and feathers. The integument protects organs and tissues, aids in regulating body temp, and receives signals from external environment,
skin largest part of the integument, and composed of the epidermis and dermis, and supported by the hypodermis
epidermis made of keratinized epithelial tissue, it is the external portion of the skin.
keratin tough, fibrous, waterproof protein.
melanocytes responsible for the color of skin and hair, and only found on certain mammals
dermis under the epidermis, composed of connective tissues such as collagen and elastic fibers.
hypodermis under the dermis, contains loose connective tissue and fat.
respiratory system breathing system which includes the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs
Lungs contain the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
alveoli small sacs within the lungs that are surrounded by capillaries.
Circulatory system transports blood and other substances such as cells, hormones, and antibodies, through the body.
lymphatic system contains the lymph vessels and lymph nodes, and is involved in the removal of excessive fluid from tissues, and is also involved with the immune system
arteries blood vessels that carry the blood away from the heart
capillary beds end of the line for the blood moving through the arteries, and at this point is where oxygen and waste product is exchanged between the blood and the body
systemic circulation system moves blood from the heart to the rest of the body
pulmonary circulation system moves blood from the heart to the lungs
plasma contains many dissolved materials that are transported around the body, such as hormones and electrolytes. the blood cells are suspended in plasma
red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to cells, and remove carbon dioxide and return it to the lungs for removal from the body. The red blood cells in mammals do not have a nucleus
white blood cells have specific roles in the immune system and are divided into two categories depending on whether visible granules are present in they cytoplasm
granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
agranulocytes lymphocytes and monocytes
platelets involved in clotting of blood.
Created by: HammondHm



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