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Nutrition ch. 9

QuestionAnswer
What is nutrition something ESSENTIAL that a plant or animal obtains from the environment used for growth and living.
what are essential nutrients they must be supplies in the diet because the body can not synthesize them naturally
what are non-essential nutrients don't need to be supplied because the body naturally synthesizes them.
what are the 3 nutrient classification macronutrient, micronutrients, WATER
how much of an animals body is made up of water 50-70%
what is dehydration a decrease in the amount of water present in the body
how much water can one lose before dying 10%
how much water does dry food have 10%
how much water does canned food have 75%
what is metabolic water water produced during oxidation of the energy containing nutrients (macronutrients)
what are the functions of water 1) facilitate cellular respiration 2) transport medium for nutrients 3) temp. regulation 4) provides shape and structure to organs 5) aids in digestion 6) elimination of waste
what are the 3 everyday losses of water urination, defecation, respiration
what are the 2 abnormal losses diarrhea, vomiting
what are the 3 macronutrients proteins, carbs, fats
how many amino acids make up protein 22
what 2 groups make up an amino acid one side is a nitrogen group and the other is a carboxyl group connected by a R group (which is just a variant)
what is the byproduct (waste) when two amino acids join together water
how many essential amino acids are there 11
which amino acid is only for cats taurine
what are the functions of taurine bile acid conjunction, retinal formation, normal function of the myocardium
What are the 3 taurine decencies feline central retinal degeneration ( leads to blindness) dilated cardiomyopathy (leads to cardiac failure) fetal development is preganant Queens ( fewer live births, small kittens)
which animal is an obligated carnivore cats b/c they need 2x as much protein as dogs and don't metabolize carbs well
what are proteins used for
is more protein is better NO it is quality over quantity
when does an animal require higher amounts of proteins 1) young and growing 2) high active levels 3) pregnant/lactating 4) when sick to repair and disease
do high protein diets taste good NO
how much crude protein should be in a dogs diet less than 40%
how much crude protein should be in a cats diet less than 50%
is excess protein stored NO
what are symptoms of protein deficiencies emaciation, death, vomiting, loss of vision, anemia, hair and muscle loss, immune deficiency
what happens when there is a excess protein kidney failure and liver disease from being overworked and damaged
fats are also called what LIPIDS
what is the function of fat 1) provide and store energy 2) makes up the cell membrane 3) acts as signaling agents and hormones 4) NOT water soluble 5) contains 2x more energy that carbs and proteins
what are lipids made up of fats and oils
what are saturated fatty acids they have no double bonds, (think saturated by hydrogen) they are solid at room temperature AKA BUTTER
what are unsaturated fatty acids they have one or more double bonds between the CARBON they are liquid are room temp. AKA OLIVE OIL
what are triglycerides simple lipids made up of 3 fatty acids like to 1 glycerol *most common for of fat in a diet*
what are the functions of fats 1) provide/ store energy 2) insulators/ protects from heat loss (hibernation) 3) protective layer against cold 4) absorption of fat soluble vitamins 5) building blocks of cholesterol, steroids, hormones
what are the 3 essential fatty acids 1) Linoleic acid 2) Alph-linoleic acid 3) Arachidonic acid ( CATS)
Where are essential fatty acids found found in animal fats
what are symptoms of fatty acid deficiency dry hair coat, poor wound healing, weight loss, decreased immunity, alopecia, anemia
which animal gets hepatic lipidosis and why CATS because they do not metabolize fats well, symptoms are icterus, depression, in-appetance
what are monosaccharides and what are the 3 types simple sugars glucose, fructose, galactose
what are the disaccharides made up of lactose= 1 glucose, 1 galactose sucrose= 1glucose, 1 fructose maltose= 2 glucose
what are polysaccharides starch and dietary fiber
easily digested, provide quick but short energy, causes large fluctuations in blood sugar (glycemic index) ex) rice, pasta, bread, potatoes
what enzyme do dogs and cats lack that aids in digestion amylase found in saliva
where are proteins digested in the stomach
where are carbs digested in the small intestines
what is an insoluble carb fiber
why is fiber necessary in a diet 1) bulks stool 2) holds water in the GI tract 3) regulates cholesterol 4) slows absorption of sugar 5) increases satiety
what is the protein-sparring effect when proteins are sparred from being used for energy if enough carbs are available
where are excess carbs stored stored in liver as glycogen only limited amounts of storage space available, any extra gets stored as fat
what are vitamins organic molecules, not used for energy, must be supplied in the diet, fat and water soluble, prevents deficiency
what are the 3 micronutrients vitamins, minerals, supplements
what are the 4 fat soluble vitamins K, A, D, E
what is vitamin A's functions 1) vision 2) bone growth 3) reproduction 4) maintenance of skin cells 5) immune system
what foods can you find vitamin A milk, fish, carrots, liver, yellow,and green veggies
which animal can NOT convert carotenoids into vitamin A CATS
what happens when there is an excess of vitamin A skeletal malformations, bony hyperplasia
what does vitamin D do regulates the absorption of calcium, can NOT be synthesized by sunlight to the active form
where can one find vitamin D egg yolk, liver, and some fish
what happens with there is excess vitamin D 1) soft tissue mineralization 2) bony remolding 3) organ failure 4) rickets
what is the main function of vitamin E antioxidant- helps protect against cell damage due to free radicals
where can one find vitamin E corn, nuts,olives, oils, green leafy veggies
what does vitamin E deficiencies lead to 1) muscle disease 2) poor reproduction 3) retinal degeneration 4) the more fat in the diet the more vit. E is required
what does vitamin K do helps with blood clotting, regulates bone growth, can be naturally synthesized in the large intestines, and ANTIDOTE FOR RODENTICIDE!
where is vitamin K found green leafy vegetables
what are the 2 water soluble vitamins B and C
which vitamin B can be toxic for cats B3 - niacin
what are vitamin B deficiencies malabsorption in the GI stomatitis ( black tongue disease) poor skin and coat anemia weight loss neurological disorders retinopathy
what does vitamin C do aids in synthesis of collagen and elastin and produced in liver
which animals need vitamin C in their diet humans non human primates guinea pigs fruit eating bats
what does one get when they don't get enough vitamin C scury- impaired wound healing, capillary bleeding, anemia, faulty bone formation
what are minerals inorganic elements, 12 essential minerals for life
what are the two different types of minerals macromineral, mircomineral ( trace elements)
what are the macrominerals calcium phosphorus manganese potassium sodium chloride
what is calcium principle inorganic component of bone 99% of calcium is found is bone and teeth
what is calcium used for -muscle contractions -nerve impulses -blood clotting -cardiac function
common calcium deficiencies are -loss of bone structure -pathologic fractures -seizure -cardiac arrhythmias -RICKETS
what is phosphorus second most abundant mineral found in mainly in bone, but also muscle and tissues necessary for ATP (energy) production
phosphorus deficiencies -RICKETS -spontaneous bone fractures -decreased growth -dull hair coat
excess phosphorus -bone loss -urinary stone -calcification of the soft tissue - secondary hyperparathyroidism
how much are where is Magnesium found 60-70% found in bones and teeth needed to metabolize carbs and proteins allows for proper muscle contractions and nerve impluses
magnesium excess not common in dogs can increase urinary stones is cats
magnesium deficiency RARE poor appitite poor bone growth neurologic problems
Where is potassium (K) found found mainly in the intracellular fluid small amounts in bone, and connective tissue
what does potassium aid in -acid base regulation -osmotic regulation -nerve transmission CRITICAL FOR HEART MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
potassium deficiencies highly unusual in dogs and cats -neurological diseases - weakness - poor growth - cardiac abnormalities
potassium excess -hyperkalemia ( excess K) - bradycardia ( slow heart rate) -vomiting -diarrhea -polyuria/polydipsia -weight loss
where is sodium (Na) found and what does it do found in bone, bony fluid, and tissues -regulates body water, acid base balance -maintains electrical potiential in muscle, nerve, and other tissues -best friends with chloride (NaCl)
sodium deficiency very unusual for dogs dehydration acid base disruption
sodium excess can be harmful in certain medical conditions like heart failure and kidney disease
what is chloride and where is it found found in the stomach as gastric enzymes HCl necessary for normal osmotic pressure and water balance
chloride deficiencies can come from protacted vomiting and water loss usually associated with other electrolye imbalances
what are microminerals also known as trace minerals
what are the 6 microminerals 1) iron 2) copper 3) zinc 4) manganese 5) selenium 6) iodine
where is iron found and stored found in the hemoglobin and myoglobin ( blood and muscle cells) stored in the liver and spleen
iron deficiencies -anemia -muscle weakness -poor growth -decreased hemoglobin and myoglobin production
iron excess TOXIC destroys the liver and spleen cells uncommon
What is Copper's function and where is in stored used in many metabolic reactions and enzymatic systems necessary for proper absorbtion and transport of iron needed for osteoblast activity in skeletal development STORED IN THE LIVER
who is coppers best friend iron (CuFe)
copper toxicity -causes liver disease -causes problems in dogs with copper storage disease
which dogs are prone to getting copper storge disease Dalmatians, German shepherds, retrievers, and Doberman
what does Zinc do cofactor in synthesis of DNA and RNA and protein essential for normal cellular immunity and reproductive function
Zinc deficiencies -skin lesions -hair loss -crusting -depigmentation
What are the dogs prone to getting Zinc deficiencies Bull terriers- die as puppies huskys and malamutes
Zinc toxicity happens when zinc coins are ingested -hemolytic anemia -gastroenteritis
Manganese functions necessary for bone development and neurologic formation -deficiencies are rare but result in poor bone growth and reproduction
Selinium functions antioxidant and found in small amounts of tissues
Iodine function necessary for thyroid hormone production locally grown foods must have iodine added (in the soil)
what are some iodine imbalances cause goiters, myxedema, weight gain and mostly seen in cats
what are supplements a substance meant to ortify the diet and contains a herb, amino acid, vitamin, or mineral, or combination food grade and most BOUGHT OVER THE COUNTER
Nutraceuticals foods that are supplied in a non food form CAN NOT BE BOUGHT OVER THE COUNTER used as therapeutic agents
how do we measure energy U.S.- uses kilocalorie (kcal) everyone else uses kilojoule (kj) 1 kcal= 1000 calories
what is gross energy (GE) all potiential energy in a food or diet
what is digestible energy (DE) GE (gross energy) minus energy lost in feces
what is metabolizable energy (ME) DE (digestable energy) minus energy lost in urine and gas
what is net energy (NE) ME (metabolizable energy) minus the energy lost during digestion and absorption
what are Atwater factors assign energy content to the three macronutrients PROTEIN- 3.5 kcal/g FAT- 8.5 kcal/g CARB- 3.5 kcal/g
how much energy density is in dry dog food 3500 kcal/kg
how much energy density is in dry cat food 3500 kcal/kg
does water increase or decrease the energy density DECREASES
resting energy requirement (RER) amount of energy needed to just stay alive ******* (30x BW(kg)+ 70*******
metabolizable energy requirement (MER) amount of energy for a healthy animal is normal exercise LOOK AT CHART HANDED OUT FOR DOGS AND CATS
to turn Lbs into kgs you... always DIVIDE by 2.2
to turn kgs into Lbs you... always MULTIPLE by 2.2
normal, neutered adult cat (MER) 1.2 x RER
intact cat (MER) 1.4 x RER
active adult cat(MER) 1.6 x RER
obese adult cat (MER) 1.0 x RER
weight loss cat (MER) 0.8 x RER ideal weight
critical care cat (MER) 1.0 x RER
weight gain cat (MER) 1.2 - 1.4 x RER ideal weight
geriatric cat (MER) 1.1 x RER
neutered adult dog (MER) 1.6 x RER
intact dog (MER) 1.8 x RER
inactive/obese dog (MER) 1.2 - 1.4 x RER
weight loss dog (MER) 1.0 x RER ideal weight
weight gain dog (MER) 1.2 - 1.8 x RER ideal weight
active working dogs (MER) 2.0 x RER, and 5.0 x RER
puppy 0-4 months (MER) 3.0 x RER
puppy older than 4 months (MER) 2.0 x RER
Created by: lizardpants